Human Anatomy

Human Anatomy

The knowledge is the essence of everything. The knowledge and information about the basic construction and the basic structure of the human body are very vital.

The study about the skeleton, the organs of the various sections of the body and the nervous system is significantly essential for anyone who is in the field of medicine, biology and any type of health studies.

The "Basics of Human Anatomy" provides the brief introduction of each and every group of anatomy. It also provides a clear and accessible introduction to the human body. It provides the information about the structure, functioning and the primary system of the human body. Human anatomy is very vast and the detail of every important aspect is provided in a very brief yet understandable form.

The human anatomy is a very vast and huge field. It is all about the study of the human body. But it is not restricted to only the main organs or the overview of the body. The human anatomy is the detailed study of the human body along with the smallest organs, nerves, cells, tissues- everything. It is very important to understand the basic theme of the anatomy. Here the discussion about the human anatomy is done carefully. Not just this, but also a good discussion about the various types of anatomies is done. There are many different types of anatomies, which are the sub-divisions of the main human anatomy. These sub-divisions of the human anatomy are very vital. They are very different from each other in many aspects. The simplest language is used to make the concept clearer to the students. The human anatomy plays a vital role in the medical field. All those who are somewhere related to the medical field, are required to understand the importance of the human anatomy. This concept is used in the medical field, in the health-related research and in many sections and domains of biology.

The human anatomy, which is divided into certain categories, is very significant. This division or categorization of the different sects of the human anatomy will help people to understand each and every aspect, separately.

The various divisions of human anatomy are the gross anatomy or macroscopic anatomy, the histology or microscopic anatomy, the physiology, the embryology or the developmental anatomy, the clinical anatomy, the living anatomy, the surface or the radiographic anatomy and the basic anatomy. The human anatomy is divided into all these divisions and the most basic of all is the basic anatomy.

The basic anatomy tells about basic idea behind the human anatomy. The basic anatomy is significant because, without having the knowledge of the most basic concepts, it is very laborious to understand the human body and its most complex structural details. So the basic anatomy is a compulsion to be learned completely before one can learn about the human anatomy.

The gross anatomy or the macroscopic anatomy is another important aspect of the human anatomy. It is basically divided into two sections or approaches. These approaches are vital and needed for the understanding of the gross anatomy. The two sections or the approaches are according to the system of the organs and the region of the organs. Every organ has some different functioning and way of processing and each organ has a limited, decided area or portion of the body, where it works. These organs work according to the body needs also. These organs reside in a particular space in the human body and the system of each of them is distinct. The discussion on the gross anatomy or the macroscopic anatomy is done in the next few chapters for a better understanding. Along with this, the discussion about the two approaches is done, in a subtle way so that it can be understood properly.

In the next few sections of the human anatomy, the histology or the microscopic anatomy is also discussed. The introduction of the microscopic anatomy, the features and the functioning and the way of examining is also defined. The embryology or the developmental anatomy also has a significant role in the human anatomy, which is described precisely, in order to understand it well.

The other branch of the human anatomy is the living anatomy. The living anatomy and the gross anatomy are the two branches of the human anatomy, which are very different from any other branches of the human anatomy. The main reason behind this difference is that the other branches of human anatomy, needs the dissection method. The method or process of dissection is performed only on the dead bodies. This method is important to study the internal structure of the human body. In this method, students are trained to cut the dead bodies by the process of dissection, in order to understand the internal structure and internal functioning of the human body.

Now how the living anatomy and the gross anatomy are different from the other branches? It is because both do not require the process of dissection. It is impossible to attempt dissection on the living human being, and so this branch stands distinct from every other branch of human anatomy.

Human anatomy has also a lot of terminologies, which are important to know and understand. At the starting level, they may seem a little confusing, but they are actually easy to understand and remember. These terminologies are vast so they are required to be remembered properly. There are different terminologies for the different organs and the functions. These are medical terms and are only used in the medical field, by the professionals. Such terms include various names of different types of positions. These positions can be the standing positions or the laying positions. These are basically used for the check-up of a patient or during the diagnosis. Beside this, there are also many terminologies for the various types of planes, which are horizontal as well as vertical. These planes are important and they tell about the body in a precise way. Apart from this, there are certain terminologies for the various types of muscle and their working.These are very useful as once, a person has understood the differences, and he can easily differentiate between the muscles as well as the positions and the planes.

Another important aspect of the terminology is the various anatomical names or terms to describe the movement of the organs. The organs may move forward or upward, or any related direction. According to this, the movements are describing in the anatomical terminology. The relative terminologies are described. There are various terms used to describe limbs. These terminologies are important and very vital.

There is a discussion about the different classification of the human anatomy. Here the human anatomy is described in the 8 types of classification, which has covered the major organs of the body along with their functionalities. 

The description of the human anatomy starts with the head and neck section of the body, which covers the whole skull, the brain, the face, the eyes, ears, the mouth etc.

Going down, the description of upper limbs which consists of hands and arms, as well as the thorax is also described. The abdomen and the pelvis are described, where the major organs like the lungs and heart are discussed. Along with this, the functioning of the pancreas, kidney, liver etc. is also discussed.

The basics of human anatomy are discussed well in order to understand the whole process with a conclusion, stating the importance of Human anatomy.

1. WHAT IS HUMAN ANATOMY?

Human anatomy is the study of the internal and external structure of the human body. The relationships between the internal and external structure with each other are also determined. It also incorporates the study of muscles, bones, joints and the whole systems of the human body. The main focus of the human anatomy is on the standard naming of the organs, their functionalities, and their physical properties.

Human anatomy is all about learning and understanding the structure of the body. The word anatomy is derived from the Greek word “Anatome”, which means to cut up. In the human anatomy, every small detail of every organ of the body is described, including its working.

There are basically two main levels of the structure of human body. These are macroscopic level and Microscopic level. The macroscopic level is known as Gross Anatomy. The other one that is, the microscopic level is known as Microscopic Anatomy or histology. Now, coming back to the human anatomy, the study of anatomy has many subspecialties. These are the Gross anatomy, Microscopic anatomy or histology, Developmental anatomy or Embryology, living anatomy, physiology etc. In the later chapters, these subdivisions are described completely and it is described that how each of the forms of anatomy and their methods is different from each other.

WHAT IS BASIC ANATOMY?

2. HISTORY OF HUMAN ANATOMY.

The human anatomy is very old and hence it has a very long and vast history. The history of human anatomy has done its part to some of the most intelligent people the world has ever seen. Human anatomy can be divided into the following eras

The history of anatomy can be traced from the Greek period. In somewhere near 400 B.C, the most famous people of this period were Herophilus and Hippocrates. Hippocrates was the man, who was regarded as the father of medicine. He is also considered as one of the founders of anatomy, who has discovered many things for the sake of humanity. Herophilus is also famous and known as the father of anatomy. Herophilus was among the very first few people to dissect or analyze the human body. His contribution to anatomy is regarded as one of the greatest discoveries. He has done some great discoveries and by that, he created differentiation in the field of anatomy. He had differentiated several organs from each other, in order to understand the differences, he studied a lot. He differentiated cerebrum from the cerebellum. One among the most noted differentiation by Herophilus was that he differentiated nerves from tendons and arteries from veins. He gave various reasons and characteristics of each so that the differences can be easily understandable.

Great discoveries took place in the time of Roman Empire, A.D also. One of the most important and prominent anatomists of the Roman period was Galen. Due to his capabilities and discoveries, he is known as the “Prince of Physicians”. Galen was the first experimental physiologist. He was very famous and his teachings were followed by many for nearly 15 centuries. His teachings were considered as the infallible authorities of anatomy.

The most significant personality and the most prominent scientist of the fourteenth century were Mondino de Liuzzi. Ha hailed from Italy and he had posted as the professor of anatomy in Balogna. Liuzzi was very popular for his book "Anthomia". The book he wrote was considered and treated as the authorized text for anatomy. The book was considered for over a century. The reason behind the popularity of his book was that he had taught anatomy with the help of dissection. The book works as a guide for those who wanted to perform the dissection. He was one of the most renowned anatomists, before the famous Vesalius.

Anatomy is also traced from the time of Andreas Vesalius, who had reformed the subject of anatomy in his book “The working of the Human Body” in the year 1543. Later in 1590, one of the finest discoveries took place in the form of compound microscope, and then the microscopic anatomy or histology took place in the seventeenth century. The founder of microscopic anatomy was Malpighi. In the fifteenth century, it was the time when one of the greatest and prominent geniuses came for the help. He was Leonardo da Vinci. He was the originator and creator of cross-sectional anatomy. The most significant and admirable work, done by Da Vince, in the field of anatomy, was the collection of drawings of all the things he has observed and examined. These drawings were perfectly made and extremely clear that everything can be understood very easily. In his collection of 60 notebooks, he made a total of 500 diagrams. These diagrams were proved to be very beneficial.

After that, in the year 1628, the working of the circulation of the blood was discovered by Harvey. In the eighteenth century, the modern embryology was established by Wolff and in the year of 1801, the gross classification of tissues was discovered by Bichat. In these two centuries i.e. the eighteenth and the nineteenth century, some major changes have happened and major steps were taken in the learning procedures of anatomy.  For the medical students, dissection was made compulsory, to understand the human body. Later Warburton Anatomy Act was passed in England. Under this act, all the unclaimed and unidentified dead bodies were made available for dissection. Inventions such as the techniques of endoscopy were made. In this period, the usage of formalin as a fixative was also started. The history of anatomy has many more notable discoveries and the advancement was seen in the later nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The most prominent anatomists of this century include Cuvier, Meckel and Henry Gray, who is also the author of the great and most considered book “Grays’s Anatomy”.

3. BRANCHES OF HUMAN ANATOMY.

The Human anatomy is divided into many branches which have their own significance and they vary them from each other.

  1. Gross Anatomy or Macroscopic anatomy:  The gross anatomy means that the whole study of the body and the examination of the body structure without the help of a microscope. So the Gross anatomy is the study of macroscopic details of the human body. Due to this reason, there is no requirement of any instrument of medical equipment. Gross anatomy is generally studied on the dead bodies. The examination is performed on the dead body because it is impossible to dissect a living human, for the study of anatomy. Due to this reason, gross anatomy is also known as cadaveric anatomy.

Gross anatomy is divided into two approaches. Both of the approaches can be used for the study of gross anatomy. So basically in Gross Anatomy, the structure of human body is studied, as seen by the naked eyes. Hence it is the macroscopic level of the human anatomy.

The whole working of Gross anatomy is arranged into these two types of approaches. With the help of these two approaches, the gross anatomy can be studied and understood. These approaches are very important. They are the Systemic Approach and the Regional Approach.

  • Systemic Approach: The systemic arrangement of human anatomy is related to the various systems of the human body. The systemic approach is the study of the functional relationships of body organs within a system. In the systemic arrangement, the body is divided into the types of organs and their system. This includes the skeleton of the body or the skeletal system, the various muscular systems, nervous system and the digestive system of the body. Apart from this, there are many structures that belong to a single system. The study of all these systems and their functioning is achieved here.
  • Regional Approach: The regional section of human anatomy is according to all the natural and main subdivisions of the body. In the regional arrangement, the body is divided into different regions. This is an approach, in which the study about the body parts is done on the basis of their regions. This includes the head and neck part of the body, the thorax and the upper limb which includes the arm, forearm, wrist etc. Besides this, all the other remaining structures are also examined within the regional arrangement.
  1. Microscopic Anatomy or Histology: In the microscopic anatomy, the use of the microscope is required for studying the tissues of a human body. It also studies the various organs of a human body. This is basically done to examine all the internal working of the body, which cannot be seen and studied by the naked eyes. Thus the examining of fine structures or ultrastructure helps to understand the tissues and the organs of the body in a better and much easier way.
  2. Physiology: It is clear from the name physiology that the whole study is related to the physical features of a body. In the Physiology, it is examined that how the body is working. How the different part of the body is working or functioning.
     
  3. Living Anatomy: In the living anatomy, the study and examination of living human beings are done. So there is no involvement of dead bodies in the living anatomy. Hence, the dissection method cannot be applied here. The techniques, which are used to understand and study the living anatomy include palpitation, percussion, auscultation etc.
  1. Developmental Anatomy or Embryology: Embryology is also known as the Developmental Anatomy. The embryology is concerned with the study and examining of the development of an embryo. The study involves the development process of an embryo, as a single cell to a complete human being. The Embryology also provides details about the prenatal and postnatal changes and development in the body. The human body changes as long as it is developing. The study of each developmental phase and the changes which occur before and after the development of the human body is studied completely. The mechanism, by which these changes occurred, is also studied.
  1. Surface or Radiographic Anatomy: As the name indicates the purpose very well, the surface anatomy is the study of the surface of the human body structures. This is also known as the radiographic anatomy. The surface anatomy determines the relation between the surface of the human body and the internal structures of the human body. With the help of the surface anatomy, a medical professional is able to locate the positions of the internal organs by touching the surface of the body. This anatomy has a very significant role in the surgical operations. The radiographic anatomy is also defined as a sub-branch of the gross anatomy. But it has some different advantages and importance, due to which it is considered as a different part of human anatomy.
  1. Clinical Anatomy: The clinical anatomy is a very important application of the anatomical knowledge for the clinical practice. This branch of anatomy is very important and it is more of a practical aspect of human anatomy. This branch has supreme importance and it is very eminent for medical professionals.
  1. Basic Anatomy: Apart from all the main subdivisions of human anatomy, which are discussed and described above, there also exists a branch, which is known as Basic Anatomy. Basic anatomy is considered as one of the most significant branches of human anatomy. In this branch, the proper explanation of the basic terms, as well as definitions, is accomplished. These terms and definitions are also used in the examination and study of gross anatomy as well as in the study of histology or microscopic anatomy. So, it actually works as a code, by which students can understand the basic terminology and the basic theme of anatomy. It also provides the introduction to anatomy and provides the concepts of anatomy. For example, if someone is studying the general features as well as the special features of an arm bone, the primary thing a person needs to know is what actually is a bone and the distinct characteristics of a bone. Basic anatomy covers such parts of the study to understand the importance of the body parts. Hence for the illustration of the basic components of a human body, the basic anatomy plays a very crucial role.

4. BASIC ANATOMICAL TERMS

The human anatomy has a number of different terminologies which is in a form of collection. There are many terms of human anatomy, which are taken from the Greek and the Latin languages. These terms are used for various purposes. Each term has its very special and specific meaning. Hence, it is very vital to know and understand the basic terms of human anatomy. These anatomical terminologies are used repeatedly throughout the whole course and learning of anatomy. Here are the discussion and explanation of the terms with their meanings.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING POSITIONS

  • Anatomical Position: In the anatomical position, the body is straight and it is in the standing position. In this position, the eyes are also looking towards the straight direction. In this position, the palms are hanging by the sides near to the body, facing forwards. The legs are fully extended and the feet also point forwards. The anatomical position is very significant, as the relation of all the structures is described properly.
  • Supine Position: In the supine position, the body is lying down on the support of the back, which means that the face is pointing upwards. The hands are also close to the body. The eyes are pointing straight upwards. So all of the remaining positions are like the anatomical position, except that the body is on the horizontal plane instead of being in a vertical plane.
  • Prone Position:  This position is the invert of the supine position. In the prone position, the back of the body is directed upwards. The body remains in the horizontal plane but the face is directed downwards.
  • Lithotomy Position: In the lithotomy position, the body is lying in the supine position, but the hips and knees are fully extended. In this position, the feet are strapped. This supports the flexed knees and the hips.
  • Median or Mid-Sagittal plane: This is the plane which divides the body into halves. One of the equal right half and one of the equal left half.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING PLANES

  • Sagittal plane: Any plane which is parallel to the median plane is called the Sagittal plane. This plane is responsible for dividing the body into unequal right and left halves.
  • Frontal Plane: The frontal plane is also known as the coronal plane. This is the vertical plane, at a right angle to the median plane. If a line is drawn from one ear to another from above the head and then if the whole body is divided along this line, then the frontal plane is formed.
  • Transverse Plane: A transverse plane is a horizontal plane of the body. This plane is perpendicular to both the frontal and the median plane.
  • Oblique Plane: If there are any changes seen in any plane and that is not similar to any of the planes described above, then it will be the oblique plane.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING RELATIONS.

  • Anterior: This means towards the front
  • Posterior: This means towards the back.
  • Superior: This means towards the head.
  • Inferior: This means towards the feet.
  • Median: The median means towards the median plane or near the middle of the body.
  • Lateral: The lateral means away from the median plane, which means it will be away from the middle of the body.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR LIMBS

  • Proximal: This means near the trunk.
  • Distal: This means away from the trunk.
  • Paraxial Border: The preaxial border denotes the outer border in the upper limb and the inner border in the lower limb.
  • Postaxial Border: The postaxial border denotes the outer border in the upper limb and the inner border in the lower limb.
  • Flexor Surface: The flexor surface means the posterior surface of the lower limb and the anterior surface of the upper limb.
  • Extensor Surface:

This means the posterior surface of the upper limb and the anterior surface of the lower limb.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING MUSCLES

  • Origin: The relatively fixed end of a muscle during the natural movements of the muscle. This fixed end is called the origin, which helps in the proper movement of the muscles.
  • Insertion: The relatively mobile end of the muscle during natural movements of the muscle. This helps in correct movement.
  • Belly: The fat fleshy part of the muscle which is contractile in function.
  • Tendon: This part of the muscle is fibrous and non-contractile. This part attaches muscle to the bone.
  • Aponeurosis: This is a flattened tendon, which arises from the connective tissues around the muscle. 

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING MOVEMENTS

  • Flexion: This is a movement with the help of which the angle of a joint is decreased.
  • Extension: This is a movement with the help of which the angle of a joint is increased.
  • Adduction: This is the movement towards the central axis.
  • Abduction: This is the movement, which is away from the central axis.
  • Medial Rotation: This is the rotation towards the medial side of the body or near the middle of the body.
  • Lateral Rotation: This is the rotation towards the lateral side of the body.
  • Pronation: This is the movement, which occurs in the forearm whereby the palm is turned backward.
  • Supination: This is the movement, which also occurs in the forearm whereby the palm is turned forwards.

ANATOMICAL TERMS FOR DESCRIBING POSITIONS:

5. Human Anatomy Classification

The human anatomy is classified by dividing into seven major groups. Each group includes the description, working, functionalities of some organs that come under each group. These 7 major groups are:

  1. The Head and the Neck.
  2. The Upper Limb.
  3. Thorax.
  4. Abdomen.
  5. Pelvis.
  6. Lower Limb.
  7. The Back.

6. The Head and the Neck

In this part, the skull is examined. This group includes the examination of all the distinct parts and organs which are included in the skull. It starts with the brain, ear, eyes and ends with the mouth, nose, pharynx and larynx. The head and the neck of the body are the most prominent and important parts of the body. In the head and neck, there are a number of important structures. This part covers the subject matter of various specialties and the most complex studies such as neurosurgery, neurology, and neuroradiology, which involves the study of the brain, the nerves and the skull. Apart from this, this section also includes ophthalmology, which is related to the eye. In this section, all the functioning of eyes, the smaller details of it, as well as the various distinct parts and organs of eyes are covered. After this, the otology is another specialty, where the study of the ear is performed. The ear has a lot of functioning, so the functionalities of an ear and its working are examined. Next is the rhinolaryngology. It is the study of the nose and the throat. In this, it is determined that how nose and throat are connected with each other. What are the different functionalities of these two organs and how they are related to each other? The last section of this group is the teeth and the jaws, which is covered by the dentistry and oral surgery. The working and functioning of teeth, how the teeth are connected with the jaw is also determined.  The extended and advanced form of this is maxillofacial surgery. All these divisions and their specialties are performed to find out the solutions for various diseases rated to these organs. In human anatomy, a detailed study is performed about the various and distinct organs included into the skull. The classification, study of functionalities and the relation of the organs with each other is also examined.

  • Skull: The cranium or the skull is an important part of the human body. It protects the brain and the other organs inside the head, which have special sensations. The passage of air is done with the help of the skull. It also supports the passage of food and supports the teeth.  A skull has a lot of bones which are united for the movement such as facial expressions etc. The most top part of the skull is known as calvaria.
  • The Nervous System: The nervous system embodies the central nervous system of the body. It consists of the brain and the peripheral nervous system and peripheral nerves. It is composed of uncountable nerves and glial cells, which comprises with the blood vessels and a tiny connective tissue. The nerve cells are also called neurons. The neurons are responsible for the receiving and transmitting signals from the brain to the other body parts.
  • The Brain: The brain is the most important organ of a human body. The primary divisions of the brain (encephalon) are the forebrain also known as prosencephalon, the midbrain also known as mesencephalon and the hindbrain which is also known as rhombencephalon. The hindbrain has also two subdivisions, which is known as metencephalon that is the after brain and the myelencephalon that is the narrow brain.
  • Ear: The ear is totally concerned with the equilibration and the hearing. Every ear has three main parts. These are the external ear, middle ear, and internal ear. The external ear mainly conducts with the sounds, as it helps in hearing. It also protects the inner and deeper parts of the ear. The middle ear is responsible for the airspace in the temporal bone. The internal ear is located within the petrous part of the temporal bone. The internal ear consists of the compound and complicated fluid-filled spaces. The cochlea of the ear is the main and most significant organ of hearing.
  • The Orbit: The orbits are basically two cavities. These are bony and occupied by the eyes. The orbits are also associated with muscles, nerves, fat, blood vessels etc.
  • The Eye: The eye is a very important feature of the skull. It lies in the cavity of the orbit. It has two pupil ls inside it. The eyes comprise of the lens and retina. Eyes are responsible for the sight and colors a person can see.
  • Retina: The retina of an eye includes special recipients, with the help of which, an inverted image can be seen, if the retina is projected to that image. The retina of each eye is connected with the visual areas of the forebrain of both sides.
  • The Nose: The nose is another significant organ of the body. It includes the external part of the nose as well as the nasal cavity. The main functioning of the nose is to smell and provide filtered clean air.
  • Mouth: The mouth consists of tongue and lips. Mouth is also used for respiration as well as for artificial respiration. The mouth does not supply clean and filtered air. Inside the mouth, the teeth and jaws reside. 
  •  
  • Tongue: The tongue is located at the base of the mouth. It is one of the strongest muscles of the human body. The tongue is also attached to the pharynx. The primary function of a tongue is to taste, swallow and speech. Without the help of tongue, humans cannot speak of taste.
  • Lips and Cheeks: The lips are connected with the gums from the inside. Lips consist of two parts; upper lips and lower lips. Lips help in talking properly. The cheeks resemble the muscular structure of the lips. They contract and relax when a person speaks or give any expressions like laugh, smile, cry etc.
  • Teeth: Teeth are very important organ of the human body. It helps is chewing food and speech. Every tooth is composed of connective tissues. The jaws are the base on which each tooth is attached. A root canal is also an important aspect of teeth.
  • Scalp: The scalp consists of five layers. The first layer is skin, which generally has hair. The second layer consists of subcutaneous tissue, which usually consists of nerves and vessels. Since blood vessels are present ere, when the scalp gapes is cut, it bleeds. The third layer consists of a fibrous helmet between the occipitalis and frontalis muscles. This helps in the movement of the scalp and helps in elevate eyebrows. The fourth muscle contains the emissary veins, which allows the free movement of all the layers explained above. The fifth layer is the outside layer of the skull.
     
  • Pharynx and Larynx: The pharynx is the digestive system part, which is located towards the back of the nasal and the oral cavities. This part is distributed into nasal and oral parts. The larynx is the name of the organ that connects the lower part of the pharynx organ, with the trachea. It helps in the air passage, during swallowing food. It is also very vital for the vocalization so that the sound of speech can come out.

7. The Upper Limb

The upper limb comprises of the four major parts. These are a girdle, the arm, the forearm and the hand. The upper limb is responsible for the functioning of the hands, shoulder and axilla, forearm, arm and elbow etc. This has made every organ very movable. Many supporting muscles, supports and stabilize the upper limbs.

  • Shoulder and Axilla: The shoulder is an organ with which every other organ of the upper limb is connected. The shoulder helps in the movement of the whole hand. The deltoid is responsible for the roundness of shoulder. The gap between the arm and the chest wall is known as axilla.
  • Arm and Elbow: The arm is connected to the shoulder. It helps in the free movement of the hand. There are some muscles in the anterior of the arm. These muscles are called biceps. In the posterior of the arm, there are muscles called triceps. The elbow is the joint part of the upper limb. It joins the arm with the rest of the hand.
  • The Forearm: The forearm is the region of upper limb, which is located between the elbow and the wrist. Basically, the forearm is divided into two compartments which are ventromedial and the dorsolateral. The muscles of the forearm are separated into these compartments. They consist of two groups. Anterior group and the posterior group. The anterior group consists of the flexors of the wrist and the fingers and pronators whereas the posterior group consists of the extensors of the wrist and the fingers and the supinators.
  • Hand: The hand is a vital organ of the human body. It includes the forearm and the wrist along with the fingers. Without the help of the hand, it is very difficult for a human to perform daily routine works without any problems. 

8. The Thorax

The thorax is the part below the neck. It consists of mainly the heart and the lungs. It also consists of some important structures within the skeleton-like framework of the body. The thorax also provides protection to some of the abdominal organs. The skeleton also consists of ribs or the cage.

  • Lungs: One of the essential organs of the human body is lungs. The lungs are very important for the breathing and respiration process. The lungs are attached to the heart. The structure of lungs is light. They are soft, spongy and have elasticity. They have the capacity to float in water as they contain air.
  • Heart: The heart is located on the left side of the thorax. The main function of the heart is to pump blood. The heart and lungs are interconnected with each other. The lungs fill up with air and with the help of which, the heart can easily pump blood.

9. The Abdomen

The abdomen consists of many organs. These organs are mainly the digestive system organs. It consists of the stomach, liver, intestine, pancreas, liver etc.

  • Stomach: The stomach is comprised mainly of cardia, fundus, body and pyloric part. The adjacent portion of the stomach is known as cardia, whereas the part of the stomach which is above the cardiac opening level is called fundus. The cardia usually contains the air which is swallowed.
  • Small Intestine: The major functioning of the digestion of food occurs in the small intestine. The small intestine is an organ which is very necessary, without it, digestion is not possible. Its structure includes circular folds.
  • Liver: The liver is another important part which plays a major role in the digestion process. The liver is a large and soft organ. The organ looks reddish and it is the largest gland in the body. The liver is covered by the diaphragm. The size of the liver is large at the birth of a human.
  • Pancreas: The pancreas is the endocrine glands. The pancreas has a head, neck, body and a tail. The pancreas is located to the posterior to the stomach and the anterior to the inferior vena cava and the left kidney.
  • Kidney

The kidneys do not have to do anything with the food digestion. It belongs to the urinary system. It plays an important role in maintaining the ionic balance of the blood. It is necessary for excretion of waste products in the form of urine.

10. The Pelvis

The pelvis is of two types. One is the lesser or true pelvis and the other is the greater or false pelvis. The lesser pelvis is away from the abdomen. The part of the abdominal cavity, which is located between the iliac fossae, is called the greater pelvis. The abdomen consists of many organs. These organs

  • Urinary Bladder: The urinary bladder varies in the shape, size, and position. It is dependent on the amount of urine contained in the bladder. The empty bladder is normal in shape and as the amount of urine is stored in the size and shape changes.
  • Male Genitalia: The organs of male genital consist of testes, seminal vesicles, prostate, penis and many glands. This gland helps in the urination of males as well as the penis is a reproductive organ.
  • Female Genitalia: The female genital organs consist of ovaries, uterus, vagina and external genitalia. The vagina is the reproductive organ of females
  • Anal Canal: The anal canal is extended towards the anus. It is extended from the level of upper aspect of the pelvic diaphragm. It is basically an organ for the excretion. 

11. The Lower Limb

The lower limb of a human body consists of four major parts. These parts play a vital role in the movement. These parts are hip bones, thighs, the leg and the foot. The lower limb provides support to the upper limb.

  • Thigh: The thigh is among the strongest muscles of the body. It is encased by the superficial and deep fascia.
     
  • Hip Joint: The hip joint is an articulation like a ball and socket, which lies between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur.
  • Leg: The anterior and the posterior intramuscular septa are formed, from the inwards extensions of the fascia of the leg. The leg has three compartments, which are the anterior, lateral and the posterior compartments. It helps in the movement and walking, running etc.
  • Foot: The foot is very functioning and it supports in the locomotion. The foot consists of toes which are five in number. The joint between the leg and the foot is called the ankle.
     
  • Ankle Joint: The ankle joint is the joining between the leg and the foot. It helps in the movement of the foot.

12. The Back

The back of the body is used to define the whole posterior part of the trunk. The back includes the skin, muscles, spinal cord and multiple nerves and vessels. The vertebral column of the back extends from the base of the skull to the tip of the coccyx. This also helps in protecting the spinal cord, pelvis and the lower limbs.

  • Spinal Cord: The spinal cord is a long, cylindrical nervous tissue. It may have an oval or round shape in the transverse section. The spinal cord includes neurons and these neurons include the somatic motor cells, autonomic motor cells, transmission neurons, and interneurons. The spinal cord carries out the sensory and motor functions. The spinal cord is directly connected to the brain. Even a small but critical injury to the brain or the spinal cord will leave a person, never be able to walk again.

13. Conclusion

The human anatomy is one of the most important parts of the science. With the help of anatomy, the human body can be understood properly. The basic, which are described and discussed here are very important for understanding the whole concept of the human anatomy. Since the human anatomy is very old and it was very vast, it has changed a lot from the starting and it is still changing. With the help of human anatomy, students can understand every small aspect of anything related to the human body. The human anatomy has various groups or subdivisions, with the help of which, it was classified. These subdivisions of the human anatomy are very crucial and have a lot of significance in the field of medicine and among the medical professionals. The study of various parts of the body, which are grouped, has made the learning a little systematic. Each group has certain organs, which functions and carry out some work. From a small nerve to the largest organ of the human body, everything is described in brief to clear the basic concepts of the students. Anatomy also helps in understanding the various distinct types of diseases in a human being. Each disease is related to any particular organ of the body. Human anatomy helps in finding the reasons behind the disease, their cure and everything related.