Arts

Arts

Arts information for online study; you can learn about arts and related subjects, self-study and e-Learning courses about arts.

Introduction to Arts

The process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way knows Art those appeals to the emotions or senses. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations and ways of expression, including music, literature, film, sculpture and paintings. Art is often considered the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations and ways of expression, including music, literature, film, sculpture and paintings.

changed over time. Famous artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were commissioned, and few people would argue that the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel isn't fine art.

Additionally, there's long been a perceived difference between fine art and decorative arts or crafts, like glass, ceramics, and textiles that have a utilitarian or applied purpose. Decorative arts and crafts tend to be functional. However aesthetically striking a finely woven Persian carpet might be, it serves a basic purpose as a floor covering. 
The definition of fine art has broadened and changed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries with the development of new mediums like photography and digital formats. Who knows what new mediums will be used to create fine art in the future.

Explanation

Art is an expression of our thoughts, emotions, intuitions, and desires, but it is even more personal than that: it’s about sharing the way we experience the world, which for many is an extension of personality. It is the communication of intimate concepts that cannot be faithfully portrayed by words alone. And because words alone are not enough, we must find some other vehicle to carry our intent. But the content that we instill on or in our chosen media is not in itself the art. Art is to be found in how the media is used, the way in which the content is expressed.

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Art is a way of grasping the world. Not merely the physical world, which is what science attempts to do; but the whole world, and specifically, the human world, the world of society and spiritual experience.

The term "fine art" refers to an art form practiced mainly for its aesthetic value and its beauty ("art for art's sake") rather than its functional value. Fine art is rooted in drawing and design-based works such as painting, printmaking, and sculpture. It is often contrasted with "applied art" and "crafts" which are both traditionally seen as utilitarian activities. Other non-design-based activities regarded as fine arts, include photography and architecture, although the latter is best understood as an applied art. Fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
Fine art is something created for aesthetic or intellectual value rather than utilitarian or practical purpose.

Fine art involves creative expression, and it doesn't have to be beautiful. It might convey an idea or an emotion or explore social commentary. The concept of ''art for art's sake,'' originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the rise of abstract art - art that exists for its own purpose.

This category includes works of art that are created primarily for aesthetic reasons. Fine arts include:

  • Drawing – charcoal, chalk, crayon, pastel, pencil, or pen and ink
  • Painting – oils, watercolor, gouache, acrylics, ink and wash, tempera, or Encaustic paints
  • Printmaking – woodcuts, stencils, engraving, etching and lithography, or screen-printing, foil imaging, or giclee prints
  • Sculpture – bronze, stone, marble, wood, or clay
  • Calligraphy – beautiful and stylized handwriting

Fine Arts Majors

Now, one of the most important things to remember about a degree in fine arts is that it is a very competitive program in any university. Most universities will require that you already have established skills in the area of the arts in which you hope to study. A portfolio is a collection of your best work to showcase your current skills. You will need to submit a portfolio with your application to the school. For performing art majors, expect to have to audition for a spot in the program.

The primary degrees available under the fine arts umbrella are:

  • Painting 
  • Sculpture 
  • Animation 
  • Photography 
  • Printmaking 
  • Dance 
  • Film and television 
  • Musical theater 
  • Theater

Each area of fine arts is specific, but there are some overlapping courses you should expect to take no matter what field you choose. You will certainly have to complete your school's general education courses. These are courses that cover a wide range of information in many disciplines, normally taken within the first two years of a program. Additional common courses for the arts are courses such as art history and art appreciation. These cover all the arts in general, giving students an understanding of the entire field before they begin to specialize in their chosen area. 

Visual Art

"Visual Arts" is a modern but imprecise umbrella term for a broad category of art which includes a number of artistic disciplines from various sub-categories. Its wide ambit renders meaningless any attempt at definition, so rather than define or compose some diluted meaning for it, here is a list of its constituent disciplines.

The visual arts are art forms that create works that are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, film making and architecture. These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. The visual arts are those creations that we can see rather than something like the auditory arts, which we hear. These art forms are very common and extremely diverse, from the artwork that hangs on your wall to the movie you watched last night.

The current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts maintaining that a crafts person could not be considered a practitioner of art.

Architecture

I have gone through most of the papers, if not all, and have studied with interest different aspects of the problems concerning architectural expression. Here are dissertations on climatology and technology of material which determine architectural form and expression. It is natural in these days of scientific and technological development that we should focus our attention on to these aspects. It is in keeping with the spirit of the time. But it must be noted here that the awareness of climatology or technology of material indicates only a state of consciousness of modern mind which is a pre-requisite for any kind of expression employing various materials. When this consciousness is wedded to the problems of aesthetic unity between space and space, volumes and volumes, textures and textures, etc.—of course within the limits of the mediums used—, what emerges is an architectural expression. Otherwise, it is likely to remain only an engineering feat. It’s an interesting choice of term, because most art is visual - although often contains other more tactile elements such as touch, and sound (think video installations etc..). I would actually argue that a lot of the artistic effort that goes into designing a building is about the feel of the space, rather than just its appearance.

You will agree with me that if architectural expression is to be an art, it must evoke an artistic joy in the knowledgeable beholders. This quality of evoking an artistic or aesthetic joy emanates from the presently aspect of architectural design. It is essentially sensuous and sensuous unity, like in all other visual arts, is its goal. Therefore, it is needless to bifurcate architectural art from other visual arts. They are interdependent and spring up from the same or similar principles of space and time, differing only in the means which give them different character and hence different names.

A thorough understanding of the aesthetic ferment, nay complete involvement in it, should therefore form along with other technological problems, a part of architec¬tural education, both at school and professional level.

Drawing

The term drawing is applied to works that vary greatly in technique. It has been understood in different ways at different times and is difficult to define. During the Renaissance the term 'design' implied drawing both as a technique to be distinguished from coloring and also as the creative idea made visible in the preliminary sketch.

Types of Drawing 

Just as there are different types of painting, there are also different types of drawing, ranging from more representational to more abstract. They can be broken down into three different types: realistic, symbolic, and expressive modes of drawing.

Realistic Drawing

Realistic drawing is what most people in Western cultures think of when they think of drawing - capturing what we see with our eyes and representing the three-dimensional world onto a two-dimensional surface using the elements of art such as line, shape, color, value, texture, space, and form. People have long valued the ability to be able to reproduce through drawing their environment and surroundings, and this is how drawing is generally taught. Many artists keep sketchbooks for that purpose, either as studies for bigger works and paintings or as finished artworks in their own right. Indeed, this is an important type of drawing and involves learning how to see and how to accurately transfer what you see onto a two-dimensional surface. There are many excellent books that teach a student how to see and how to draw.

Symbolic Drawing

Symbolic drawing is actually much more common than you might expect. If you can write your name you are using symbolic drawing. The letters or marks you make stand for your name. Paul Klee (1879-1940) was an artist who used a variety of symbols–a shorthand notation of lines, marks, or shapes that stand for something else–in his paintings and drawings. You can create your own symbols and use them within a composition. Symbolic drawings can still be recognizable as the object or event they represent but in a simplified, more graphic form.

Expressive Drawing

Expressive drawing often communicates ideas or emotions that are not visible or tangible. Expressive drawings may capture movement and energy, feelings, memories, or even the spiritual realm. Gesture drawings can be quite expressive, capturing the energy of a figure's movement, or the delicate motion of a flower.

Purposes of Drawing

There are many uses for drawing. Drawing is a form of communication that preceded writing and that continues to serve as another form of communication. "Drawings can do amazing things. They can tell stories, educate, inspire, reveal, entertain, and inform. They can describe appearances, offer commentary, convey drama, and relate history. Arrangements of line and mark can speak of things visible, imaginary, and even invisible."

The drawing process, itself, is meditative, enriching, and edifying. When you are drawing something you become absorbed in the process of drawing, and come to know your subject through truly seeing it.

Painting

Art styles describe the way the artwork looks. Style is basically the manner in which the artist portrays his or her subject matter and how the artist expresses his or her vision. Style is determined by the characteristics that describe the artwork, such as the way the artist employs form, color, and composition, to name just a few. Another important factor in determining the style of an artwork is to examine the way the artist handles the medium, taking into account the method or technique that the artist uses. An additional aspect of art styles is the philosophy or driving force behind the artwork. All of these stylistic elements are defined by the choices artists make as they compose their artwork.

Ceramics

Known as an important plastic art, "Ceramics" (derived from Karamus, Greek for 'potter's clay') refers to items made from clay bodies and fired in a kiln to obtain the finished form. Outside of art, due to new technological processes, the term ceramics now encompasses a wider group of materials, including glass and cements, so clay is no longer a key component.

Basic Type of Ceramics

Ceramics are essential for our day to day life. It is useful from clay products to porcelain. Generally, a ceramic is a non-metallic, solid inorganic compound. Earlier ceramics were used only for pottery. Now, with the changing times, ceramics are more and more used only for specific purposes. Use of ceramics has been from ancient times. Based on these uses there are three basic types of ceramics:

  1. Clay products
  2. Refractors
  3. Industrially used ceramics

1. Clay products

In this category, many of the common ceramics like bricks and tiles are used. They are basically prepared from clay. For their shape and state, they are processed and pressed in a wet plastic state after which they are dried and then fried. Clay products that have higher density show better mechanical properties but they also have the low insulating capacity. And thus can easily catch fire. Higher density is achieved through an increase in verification and also through increasing fire temperature and finer original particle size. 

2. Refractories

Ceramic can resist higher temperatures and that is why they are also used as refractories. Refractor ceramics can withstand very high temperature and are thus used as insulating materials. They can also resist high stress. Refractors should also resist abrasive particles, hot gasses, and molten metals. For best refractors ceramics made of pure oxide is used. But these are very expensive and thus compounds made out of ceramics are used more often.

3. Industrially used ceramics

Ceramics are abrasive in nature, can withstand electrical shocks and are also magnetic in nature. And that is why ceramics are also used for industrial purposes. They can perform a variety of electrical and magnetic operations. Some ceramics like graphite are good conductors while others like Sic have a high resistivity which can also be used in heating materials.

Conductivity in ceramics increases along with the temperature because it is based on anions and captions. These movements are only possible when there is a sufficient thermal energy to supply. 

Ceramics possess two types of magnetic categories- low conductivity and superconducting magnets. Low conductivity is used in transformers like objects where a magnet is also required to have some electrical properties. Ceramics has a special property of conducting electricity without resistance and so no energy loss. This property can be useful for superconducting magnets. As this is only possible at a critical temperature and magnetic field this property is very limited.

The visual arts include all the fine arts, in addition to the following:

  • New media – digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, Internet art, interactive art, video games, computer robotics, 3D printing, and art as biotechnology
  • Photography art
  • Environmental art
  • Contemporary forms of expression – assemblage, collage, conceptual, installation

Photography

The more decades I do this, the more I realize everything in photography comes down to one word: vision. 
Call it vision, imagination, or seeing; it all comes down to the same thing: the ability to envision a final result in your mind's eye, and then to make it so with your tools at hand. It's never been about the gear. It's always been about seeing something, knowing how you want it to look, and making it so. Making it so is the easy part; seeing it in the first place is what makes a photographer. Powers of observation are everything. Snapping a camera is trivial.

Types of Photography

  • Fashion Photographer
  • Landscape Photographer
  • Wildlife Photographer
  • Aerial Photographer
  • Action / sports photographer
  • Pet Photographer
  • Event Photographer
  • Real Estate and Architecture Photographer
  • Astros photographer
  • Photojournalist
  • Concert Photographer
  • Macro Photographer
  • Medical Photographer
  • Micro Photographer
  • School Photographer
  • Baby Photographer
  • Family Photographer
  • Satellite Photographer
  • Scientific Photographer
  • Food Photographer
  • Vehicle Photographer
  • Travel Photographer
  • Street Photographer
  • Nude/erotic Photographer
  • Underwater Photographer
  • Advertising Photographer
  • Stock Photographer
  • Wedding Photographer
  • Equine Photographer
  • Paparazzi

Sculpture

The most enduring and, arguably, the greatest form of fine art known to man, sculpture has played a major role in the evolution of Western culture. Its history and stylistic development are those of Western art itself? It is a key indicator of the cultural achievements of Classical Antiquity, and became an important influence on the development of Renaissance art in Italy. Together with architecture, it was the principal form of monumental religious art which for centuries (c.400-1800) was the driving force of European civilization. Even today, although continuously evolving, sculpture is still the leading method of expressing and commemorating both historical figures and events.

Sculpture is an ancient art, passed down from antiquity. Ancient cultures carved visages out of stone and wood, like totems and effigies: the Native American totem pole, the Maui of Easter Island, the Sphinx of Ancient Egypt.

Throughout the course of its development, artists struggled to define what made one form of art distinct from another. For example, what was special about sculpture that couldn't be achieved in the staging of an opera? 18th century German art scholar Gottfried Lessing wrote a key text in which he tried to show the differences between a narrative art form like poetry and an immobile visual art like sculpture, making a comparison between the Laocoon (pictured below) and its story as told by Virgil in The Aeneid. Lessing got artists and scholars to reconsider what made a poem specific from a painting.

Literary Arts

Literary Arts is the integrative discipline of ideation, literary appreciation and creative writing. Literary Arts is the integrative discipline of ideation, literary appreciation and creative writing. The programmer focuses on rigorous ideation and the expression of ideas through the medium of words. ... They will learn the conventions and techniques of each form and apply them in creating their original written works.

Different Programs of Literary Arts

  • Book Arts
  • Creative Writing
  • Graphic Novels
  • Improves
  • Playwriting
  • Poetry
  • Songwriting
  • Storytelling

Performance Art

Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.

It also reflects the political ferment of the time: the rise of feminism, which encouraged thought about the division between the personal and political and anti-war activism, which supplied models for politicized art "actions." Although the concerns of performance artists have changed, the genre has remained a constant presence, and has largely been welcomed into the conventional museums and galleries from which it was once excluded.

Majoring in performing arts involves study that integrates the overlapping fields of drama, music and dance practices. Even when students specialize in one of the three areas, they will take courses in the other performance arts disciplines as well, as well as taking some general education courses. A performing arts B.A. program may include courses in the following subject areas:

  1. Music performance
  2. Theatre history
  3. Dance and culture
  4. Musical theatre
  5. Dance technique
  6. Dramatic literature

This classification consists of an art form that refers to public performance events which occur mostly in the theater. Performance art includes:

  • Traditional performance art – theatre, opera, music, and ballet
  • Contemporary performance art – mime
  • Hyper-modern performance art  – happenings
  • Body art, multi-media montages and happenings

The concept of performance art includes “body art”, where the body is the only means of expression. Performance has also been developed into a form of “multi-media montage”, mixing various media within the performance format. In Sweden, experimental composers from the organization Fylkingen spearheaded the development multi-media performances in the 1950s.

The concept of “happening” is sometimes hard to distinguish from performance. However, unlike a performance, a happening is an apparently unprepared series of events, often aimed at getting the audience to participate. When the artist Kjartan Sletter mark turned up dressed as a poodle in the 1970s, he was operating on the boundary between happening and performance. Elin Wikstrm made a site-specific performance-like project in 1993, where she bedded down among the food shelves in an ICA supermarket in Malmö for three weeks. “What if everybody did that?” She asked in the title of her work. Elin Wikstrom does not see herself solely as a performance artist. Instead, she sees her art as a way of questioning values in the encounter between people.

Others Arts

Applied Arts

The term "applied art" refers to the application (and resulting product) of artistic design to utilitarian objects in everyday use. Whereas works of fine art have no function other than providing aesthetic or intellectual stimulation to the viewer, works of applied art are usually functional objects which have been "prettified" or creatively designed with both aesthetics and function in mind. Applied art embraces a huge range of products and items, from a teapot or chair, to the walls and roof of a railway station or concert hall, a fountain pen or computer mouse.

Applied art can also be fine art, but it must be theoretical in practice. An example of something that would be considered both fine art and applied art are woodcut prints, because there is an image that may be theoretical in its content, but the woodblock itself is used to make multiple prints for wrapping paper.

Applied art includes, but isn’t limited to:

  1. Drawing (manual and digital) and Painting- illustrations
  2. Woodblock prints and Print based art (banners, wallpaper, tiles, etc.)
  3. Industrial/Product/Interior Design, Architecture, Car Design, Toy Design
  4. Landscaping
  5. Pottery
  6. Decorative Baking or cooking
  7. Tattoos

Video Games

Game art is basically all the visual elements you see while playing a game.
Without visual artists there, the game would be nothing more than ideas in a designer’s mind if not lines of code on a computer.

Common visual elements provided by game artists:

  • Concept art
  • Character models
  • Environments
  • Sprites
  • And more …

Game artists work closely with the game designers, producers, and writers to bring the game’s characters, stories, and worlds to life.

Arts Criticism

Criticism is tricky. The goal should neither be to sit in judgment, nor to fawn. Rather, one ought to, as the historian Herbert Butterfield wrote, think about and be sympathetic towards the limits within which people struggle to live and produce. Judging things for their perceived value is easy—it requires merely a yes or a no. Criticism should have an opinion, but not have that opinion poison or limit how one tries to understand the reality of an artwork. The most compelling criticism is written around the object, which is to say that while it touches on its subject, the writer also seeks to engage with the broader intellectual and societal context.

Four major categories of Arts Criticism

  • Describe
  • Analyze
  • Interpret
  • Judgment