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Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system Design has different connotations in different field. Now about the difference between design and invention, so design can be an invention but invention can’t be a design. Realization of a concept or idea into a configuration, drawing, model, mound, pattern, plan or specification (on which the actual or commercial production of an item is based) and which helps achieve the item's designated objective(s).

Generally speaking, it is the process of envisioning and planning the creation of objects, interactive systems, buildings, vehicles, etc. It user-centered, i.e. users is at the heart of the design thinking approach. It is about creating solutions for people, physical items or more abstract systems to address a need or a problem.

It is a very broad concept and its meaning can greatly vary from one field to another. It and permeates many aspects of our lives and branches out into many different subgenres, from product design, sound , virtual reality , interaction , to designing cars, video games, software interfaces, the home and offices interior etc.

Design as a process

The Design Process is an approach for breaking down a large project into manageable chunks. Architects, engineers, scientists, and other thinkers use the design process to solve a variety of problems. Use this process to define the steps needed to tackle each project, and remember to hold to all of your ideas and sketches throughout the process.

Rational design of HIV vaccine cocktails using ‘Epitome’

Within and across instances of a certain class of a natural signal, such as a facial image, a bird song recording, or a certain type of a gene, we find many repeating fragments. The repeating fragment scan varies slightly and can have arbitrary (and usually unknown) sizes. For instance, in cropped images of human faces, a small patch capturing an eye appears in an image twice(with a symmetry transformation applied), and across different facial images many times, as humans have a limited number of eye types. Another repeating structure across facial images is the nose, which occupies a larger patch.

In mammalian DNA sequences, we find repeating regulatory elements within a single sequence, and repeating larger structures (genes, or gene fragments) across species. Instead of defining size, variability and typical relative locations of repeating fragments manually, in an application-driven way, the ‘epitomic analysis’ is an unsupervised approach to estimating repeating fragment models, and simultaneously aligning the data to them. This is achieved by considering data in terms of randomly selected overlapping fragments, or patches, of various sizes and mapping them onto an ‘epitome, ’a learned structure which is considerably larger than any of the fragments, and yet much smaller than the total size of the dataset.

Sequence epitome

Illustrates a small set of amino acid sequences ={x ij} of size MN (with i indexing a sequence, and j indexing a letter within a sequence, and M= max i, N= max j). The sequences share patterns (although sometimes with discrepancies in isolated amino-acids) but one sequence may be similar to other sequences in different regions.

Sample a patch E  from E according to p(  ).   To illustrate p(   )  in Fig.   1,   we consider only the set of all 9-long contiguous patches. For such patches, which are sometimes called nine-meres, we can index different sets by their first elements and plot p(T ) as a curve with the domain {1, ..., Ne − 8}.                Generate a patch XS from ET  according to p(XS |ET ) =    |kT=|1  e (k)(X (k)), with T (k) and S(k) denoting the k-th element in the epitome and data patches.
Each execution of these two steps can, in principle, generate any p    pattern. The probability (likelihood) of generating a particular pattern indicated by S is

p (XS ) =    p(XS |ET )p(T ).

While the epitome is a fully probabilistic model and thus defines a precise cost function for optimization, as was the case with HMM-based models, or dynamic programming solutions to sequence alignment,  the main novelty in our approach is the consideration  of both the data and the model parameters in terms of overlapping patches. This leads to the alignment of different parts of the sequences to the joint representation without explicit constraints on contiguity of the mappings or temporal models used in HMMs.

Also, as we discuss in the next section, our goal is diversity modeling, and not multiple alignment. The epitome’s robustness to the length, position and variability of repeating sequence fragments allows us to bypass both the task of optimal global alignment, and the problem of defining the notion of global alignment. In addition, consideration of overlapping patches in a biological sequence can be viewed as modeling independent binding processes, making the patch independence assumption of our generative model biologically relevant. We illustrate these properties of the epitome on the problem of HIV diversity modeling and rational vaccine design.

Rational design of an animal model

A major obstacle to understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is the lack of easily studied animal models. Our approach is to apply transgenic methods to humanize mice and rats, employing methods that introduce large genomic transgenes, because this improves the level of transgene protein expression and the tissue specificity of expression.

Our plan is to reproduce AD pathology in rodents by making them transgenic for several human proteins involved in AD. This report describes transgenic animal lines that we have produced, and summarizes our current approach and future plans. Two human genes known to be involved in AD pathology are the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the E4 isoform of Apo lipoprotein E (apoE4). So far, we have produced and analyzed a transgenic line carrying the entire human APP gene cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome. We have also produced but not yet analyzed a mouse carrying the human apoE4 gene. Work is in progress to produce a transgenic line carrying a disease-causing mutation in the human APP gene.

As we produce these animals, we are breeding them together, and also breeding them with a mouse line that lacks endogenous ape E, to produce an animal model carrying several human proteins whose interaction is believed to be instrumental in development of AD pathology. These transgenic animals will be useful for dissecting the biochemical and physiological steps leading to AD, and for development of therapies for disease intervention.

Rational Design of Mouse Models for Research

The laboratory mouse is widely considered as a valid and affordable model organism to study human disease. Attempts to improve the relevance of murine models for the investigation of human pathologies led to the development of various genetically engineered engraft and humanized mouse models. Nevertheless, most preclinical studies in mice suffer from insufficient predictive value when compared with cancer biology and therapy response of human patients. We propose an innovative strategy to improve the predictive power of preclinical cancer models. Combining (i) genomic, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches for rational design of mouse models with (ii) rapid prototyping and computational benchmarking against human clinical data will enable fast and nonbiased validation of newly generated models.

Criticism Rational Model

The rational model of decision making assumes that people will make choices that maximize benefits and minimize any costs. The idea of rational choice is easy to see in economic theory. For example, most people want to get the most useful products at the lowest price; because of this, they will judge the benefits of a certain object (for example, how useful is it or how attractive is it) compared to those of similar objects. They will then compare prices (or costs). In general, people will choose the object that provides the greatest reward at the lowest cost.
The rational model also assumes:

  • An individual has full and perfect information on which to base a choice.
  • Measurable criteria exist for which data can be collected and analyzed.
  • An individual has the cognitive ability, time, and resources to evaluate each alternative against the others.

Action Centric Model

Have you ever noticed how some people need to plan things out, while others just jump right in and learn by doing? The process of design may be very similar. Generally, there are two accepted models to describe the overall process by which designers create products. The rational model is all about planning. You think through the entire process and follow concrete, sequential steps. This is the most traditional model. However, many people have found that they don't actually work that way. For them, the design process is encapsulated in the action-centric model, which defines design in terms of personal creativity and fluidity, not objectives and parameters. It's a model favored by those who like to get straight to the action.

So, how does the design process work according to the action-centric model? While the rational model stresses the need to define your goals and restrictions first and foremost, the action-centric model sees design as beginning with emotion, creativity, and personal aesthetic judgments made by the designer. Basically, you can't plan out the entire process, but have to make the evaluations as new objectives and restrictions become apparent during the design process. The key to the action-centric model, therefore, is improvisation.

This means that the action-centric model is not one of a strict, sequential series of stages or steps. You don't follow a formulaic pattern in the way you create a design. Instead, the stages of design, analysis/testing, and implementation occur simultaneously and recursively. Instead of one always coming before the other, you bounce between all three.

Design Discipline

Every building project has a unique set of program goals and technical requirements that demand assembling all the stakeholders and a team of professionals in various design disciplines. Each design discipline has a different set of skills, professional standards, and issues that drive how they operate in the building process.

The term “design” covers a wide range of disciplines, each offering its own specialist skills and services. These are some of the more common design disciplines: architecture, engineering, exhibition and display, fashion & textiles, graphics/visual communications, interiors, multimedia, packaging, product/industrial.

Some major design discipline categories are following:

  1. Architecture
  2. Architectural Programming
  3. Commissioning Authority
  4. Cost Estimating
  5. Electrical Engineering
  6. Fire Protection Engineering
  7. HVAC and Refrigerating Engineering
  8. Information Technologies Engineering
  9. Interior Design
  10. Landscape Architecture
  11. Lighting Design
  12. Planning
  13. Plumbing Engineering
  14. Structural Engineering

Philosophy of Design

Design philosophy is simply someone's philosophy on design: what they are trying to accomplish with design, and, more importantly, what one thinks design should accomplish.

Basically, it's someone's way of spelling out exactly what they think the purpose of design is, what its role is in the process of completing a project. Some think aesthetics have nothing to do with design. Some think design follows content, not the other way around. Others think that design is KISS all the time, everywhere. None of these are wrong; really, they are all just different approaches.

The most important thing about the term "design philosophy" is to keep it separate from "design style." 

For example: Someone's style may be minimalist — they like the look of clean designs, be it architecture, websites, logos, products, etc. — but their philosophy may be entirely different. If that person is designing minimally for the sake of how it looks, they aren't truly designing minimally, they are designing aesthetically. Designing minimally would be designing for function over form.

Study of Design

Design Studies is a leading international academic journal focused on developing understanding of design processes. It studies design activity across all domains of application, including engineering and product design, architectural and urban design, computer artifacts and systems design.

Graphic design majors take general art classes in addition to courses that are specific to their field of study. The following coursework is typical in a bachelor's degree program in graphic design.

Principles of design and color

  1. Desktop publishing 
  2. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional design 
  3. Graphics for the web 
  4. Digital photography 
  5. Multimedia and animation

Some major designations of Design Bachelor’s;

  • Graphic designer
  • User experience (UX) designer
  • Photographer
  • Interior designer
  • Multimedia artist & animator
  • Art director
  • Advertising & promotions manager
  • Fashion designer
  • Film & video editor 


Space - A two or three-dimensional coordinate system. In design 3D space, Cartesian Space) is created by using the rules of linear perspective. Space can also be implied by overlapping planes, relative position, isometric and oblique perspective. Space can also be described in terms of positive or negative, filled or empty, closed or opened.

Point - Spatial dimensions progress from the most primitive element. It is the most minimal of the visual elements used in visual design. The "point" (a.k.a. a vector or an axis.), is a dimensionless entity, which can be used to determine and define a location in space. In design, a point is positioned in relationship to either a 2D or 3D coordinate system. A point that extends in one direction becomes a one-dimensional line. In nature, it is the most common formations. In zymology, it is the period that marks the silence at the end of a sentence.

Line - is a moving point that has both a position and a direction in space, having only one dimension: "length." The variables that define the quality of lines are: size, weight, shape, position, movement and direction, number, pattern, color, shading, interval and density. Points create lines; lines create shapes, planes and volume. Because we generally experience the world horizontally and vertically, lines of this kind can help to stabilize and balance the visual weight in a composition.

Contour - The outline of an object.

Shape - A closed two-dimensional area which defines the contour of an object, form, etc. Shape falls into two general categories: Geometric and Organic (a.k.a. Free-form shapes)

Form - Is the complete state of work including all of the elements of design combining to form a structure

Figure - Outline or contour of an object, shape, form, image etc.

Volume and Mass - is a three-dimensional form comprising length, width, and depth. Volumetric forms contain points (vertices), lines (edges), and planes (surfaces). A mass is the two-dimensional appearance of a three-dimensional form. Here, mass is interchangeable with volume. A mass is a solid body or a grouping of visual elements (line, color, texture, etc.) that compose a solid form.

Surface and Texture - Actual or implied, texture refers to the surface quality of an object. Qualities like smooth and roughness are used to describe texture. Texture is usually associated with the sense of touch.

Type - Also known as typography and it is considered an element in graphic design. Although it consists of elements of design, it is - in itself - often an element in the form of visual communication.

Tone/Value - Another word for the lightness or darkness of an area, a color, or black and white. Both tone and value are interchangeable terms that refer to the relative lightness or darkness creates as light reflects off the surface of an object. Brightness is measured in relationship to a graded scale from white to black. The contrast of values is used to give the illusion of space and three-dimensionally on a two-dimensional surface.

Pattern - The emphasis of a visual form relationship through the repetition of tone or more visual elements. Many textures have or create a specific pattern. Pattern is related to the principles of Repetition, Rhythm and Consistency.

Density - (Opaque/Transparent)

Ground - That which is behind a figure, without dominant form.

Concept - An idea, thought, theory, or notion conceived in the mind.

Structure - Mode of building, construction or organization of parts, elements or constituents.

Sketch (Rough) - The drawing of an concept where only those basic elements of design are used to describe an object or form are used.

Balance - The elements of design converge to create a design or arrangement of parts that appear to be a whole with

equilibrium (a.k.a. Symmetry). It is the balancing of the "visual weight" of elements in a design. Balance is related symmetry, asymmetry and radial balance. Symmetrical balance (a.k.a. formal balance) is the even placement of visual weight in a design, where the correspondence between opposite halves of a figure, or form on either side of an axis or set of axes in a design.

Asymmetrical compositions (a.k.a. informal balance) are created by uneven spaces and therefore create "tension" in a design. 

Asymmetry gives motion to a composition that wants to be resolved into a balance. Radial symmetry relates to images emitting from a single point like the ripples from a stone thrown into a pond. The symmetry we experience as bilaterally symmetrical beings (two eyes, two ear, two arms etc.) is at the basis of the idea in a "classical" sense of design with an focus toward balance, stability, order and harmony

Unity, Proximity and Variety - "Gestalt" meaning oneness, harmony, is a condition of completeness with the use of all visual elements within a format. It is a principle focused toward creating a sense of continuity in a design. This is closely related to creating a "rhythm" in a design. Proximity or the closeness of objects creates a bond between those elements in a composition. The relationship of distance between those objects implies their relationship to one another. Unity is commonly achieved by using a "grid" as an underlying foundation throughout a design.

Similarity - The condition of elements being visually grouped according to like features, contours or symmetries.

Contrast - The "automatic principle." Whenever an element is placed within a format, contrast is created in the various elements. Contrast can be emphasized by size, shape, color, texture, etc. Contrast is closely related to the principle of "Emphasis."

Emphasis - Also known as dominance. It is the focal point in a design. This condition exists when an element or elements within a visual format contain a hierarchy of visual importance. It is a condition achieved through distinct principles of optical perception, especially through emphasizing the minority.

Time, Motion and Direction Principle portrays the act or process of changing place or direction, orientation, and or position through the visual illustration of starting or stopping points, blurring of action, etc. Animation is an end product of movement. In 2D design, motion is created through the repetition of elements in a composition.

Position - The location at which compositional elements are placed within the visual field or format. Position is commonly described as relative to other compositional elements within the boundary of the visual field or format.

Orientation - The position of a compositional element relative to a format or other objects in the composition. Orientation is the placement of the figure or form within a given space described as "facing forward", "upside down" etc.

Scale - Size and dimension of figures and forms relative to a given unit of measurement. Scale is often described in terms of a notation of dimension of an object as compared to its actual dimension in the physical world.

Size - A relative term used for comparing figures. The relative terms of "larger" and "smaller" than another are used in describing size. Size aids the viewer to determine scale, depth, and distance in the visual field.

Proportion - A two-dimensional or three-dimensional element defined by its relationship to other elements in a design. In human terms, scale is strongly related in relation to the human body and its relationship to the space around it. Proportion is seen in terms of the relationship between parts in a given design. Proportion is often described in terms of ratios (i.e. 3:4, 9:16, 1:2 etc.)

Repetition and Rhythm - In visual design, rhythm is achieved by the repetition of visual elements such as type, shape, image and layout (grid) in a given design. 

Alignment - Alignment brings order to chaos. It is closely associated with the use of grids (Matrixes) in structuring a design.

Format - A 2 or 3 dimensional field or space in which art forms, visual messages, designs, and environments are created (a.k.a. "Composition"). 2-dimensional formats have width and length. 3-dimensional formats have width, length and depth.

Design and Engineering

Design engineers research and develop ideas for new products and the systems used to make them. They also work to improve the performance and efficiency of existing products.

Hence, design engineers are good at problem-solving and generating new ideas, this job could suit you well. They work in many disciplines, like mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, piping, structural engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, etc.

The exact duties would depend on the project but could include:

  • research – using mathematical modeling to work out whether new developments and innovations would work and be cost effective
  • design – turning research ideas into technical plans for prototypes using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-assisted engineering (CAE) software
  • testing – collecting and analyzing data from tests on prototypes
  • modifying designs and re-testing – this process can go through several stages before a product is ready for manufacture or installation
  • Reporting – writing or presenting regular progress reports for project managers and clients.

    You might look at a range of features when developing ideas for a new product, such as:
  • usability and safety
  • strength and reliability
  • the 'look' and 'feel'
  • efficiency and cost
  • maintenance and life span

The actual work will depend on experience and qualifications. 

2D Design

The 2d design is the one that is composed of only two dimensions –the length and the width. In the sector of architecture these types of designs are the ground plan, the view and the section and these are discerned in 4 categories:

Category 1: The diagrams where we express our first idea of objects drawing and of the basic elements of the plan without the impression of the details in size and analogy.

Category 2: The simple sketches where is not necessary the drawing tools for the impression of the ground plan, the views, the section and the axonometric. But here we try to impress more the right analogy and the right position between the object sizes.

Category 3: The sketches in scale where are also drafts in which, whereas we use or not, drawing tools in scale we try to impress the maximum right analogy between the elements, but without special details (i.e. the width of the walls in a ground plane).

Category 4: The drawings in the scale in which we use the scale for the impression of more specific analogies. The scale is formed according to the subject of the drawing (building, furniture etc.).

3D Design

3D modeling is the process of creating a 3D representation of any surface or object by manipulating polygons, edges, and vertices in simulated 3D space. You've seen the results of 3D modeling in movies, animations, and video games that are filled with fantastical and imaginative creatures and structures. The term "3-D design" is a widely used abbreviation for three-dimensional design, incorporated commonly in design procedures associated with computers and other electronic drawing systems. In 3-D design techniques, a designer uses all three axes (x, y and z) to interpret and develop a realistic figure of the desired object.

3D modeling can be achieved manually with specialized 3D production software that lets an artist create and deform polygonal surfaces or by scanning real-world objects into a set of data points that can be used to represent the object digitally.

3D modeling is used in a wide range of fields, including engineering, architecture, entertainment, film, special effects, game development, and commercial advertising. A popular example of 3D technology is its use in major motion pictures. Just think of the scenery "Avatar," the 2009 movie from director James Cameron. The film helped to transform the 3D industry when it used many of the concepts of 3D modeling to create the movie's planet Pandora.

4D Design

4D designing focuses upon designing 'cultural expression' within dynamic situations of the everyday 'designed' world in the field of Arts Design along with 'utility'.

The main characteristics of 4D Design are depicted in the 4D Diagram, which crucially shows the relationship of the Performing Arts to functional actions of people and dynamic technologies fundamental to it.

The diagram has four basic domains of knowledge, which are inter-linked to greater or lesser extents in any 4D Design; two cover the dynamics of intangible media and physical artifacts - multimedia technology and robotics; the other two deal with the dynamics of people firstly within functional work - 'ergonomics'; and secondly 'play' - focusing on the performance Arts involving dynamic cultural expression and meaning.

In the diagram there are sub-set domains shown, and these are: the relatively new discipline of 'interaction design', focusing on the usefulness of digital technological objects; 'interface design', focusing on the usefulness of digital informational media e.g. screens and surfaces; the 'electronic arts' which deals with expression through intangible digital media including art installations; and 'kinetic sculpture' which focuses on dynamic expression of material art objects.

Process Design

A successful process design has to take into account the appropriateness of the process to overall organization objective. Process design requires a broad view of the whole organization and should not have a myopic outlook. And the process should deliver customer value with constant involvement of the management at various stages.

In order to achieve a good process design, effective process strategy is required, which deals with singular line items required to manufacture the end product. Effective process strategy deals with raw material procurement, customer participation, technology investment, etc.

Over a period of time process design has undergone change and new concepts like Flexible Manufacturing Systems have been developed, which delivers efficient and effective production design and analysis.

Production Process of Design

Based on the nature of product and service production or conversion process can be divided into two broad categories, continuous production (assembly line, oil refinery) and intermittent production (job work, service).

Production process for both manufacturing industry and service industry can be classified into broad categories based on standardization of product or service. It can range from single project assignment like a building or bridge (manufacturing) to interior design (service) and mass production project like a car (manufacturing) to a fast-food joint (Services).

Designing Tools

Top 50 designing tools are following:

  1. Dropbox
  2. Photoshop CC
  3. Keynote
  4. Illustrator CC
  5. Pixelmator
  6. Skitch
  7. Coda 2
  8. Aperture
  9. InDesign CC
  10. OmniGraffle
  11. Quartz Composer
  12. Sublime Text
  13. GitHub
  14. Ember
  15. Pen and Paper
  16. Cloud
  17. After Effects CC
  18. Sketch 3
  19. Vim
  20. ImageOptim
  21. Balsamiq Mockups
  22. Droplr
  23. iA Writer
  24. InVision
  25. Axure
  26. Heroku
  27. Skala Preview
  28. LittleIpsum
  29. Maya
  30. Sketch Mirror
  31. Flinto
  32. Hype 2
  33. Framer.js
  34. Slicy
  35. Emmet LiveStyle
  36. Reflector
  37. ImageAlpha
  38. Cheetah3D
  39. ColorSnapper
  40. LICEcap
  41. POP - Prototyping on Paper
  42. JPEGmini Lite
  43. Icon Slate
  44. Hammer
  45. Work in Progress
  46. Pixa
  47. BugHerd
  48. Composite – Prototyping Tool
  49. Play by Play
  50. UserTesting