Entertainment, Media, Film

Entertainment, Media, Film information for online study; you can learn about entertainment and related subjects, self-study and e-Learning courses about entertainment.

Entertainment, Media, Film

The media and entertainment industry consists of film, print, radio, and television. These segments include movies, TV shows, radio shows, news, music, newspapers, magazines, and books. The top 10 media and entertainment companies are The Walt Disney Company, 21st Century Fox, Direct Group Holdings (DIRECTV), Time Warner Inc., NBC Universal, National Amusements Inc., CBS Corporation, Viacom Inc., News Corporation, and TEGNA Inc. The U.S. media and entertainment industry contributes more than $632 billion to the economy and represents a third of the global industry.

He asks what a film is but then specifies a film only equals feature films. He wants to know what a feature film is, but the definition has varied considerably over time. And he wants to know what the earliest feature is, when that distinction would depend on whether one uses the definition of "feature" in the early years of the 20th Century or a current definition. Media is the plural form of medium, which (broadly speaking) describes any channel of communication. This can include anything from printed paper to digital data, and encompasses art, news, educational content and numerous other forms of information. Digital media, which makes up an increasingly vast portion of modern communications, is comprised of intricately encoded signals that are transmitted over various forms of physical and virtual media, such as fiber optic cable and computer networks.

Psychology & Philosophy of Entertainment

Modern society’s leisure time is typically spent consuming mass entertainment, such as, television, movies, video games, and time spent on social networking sites. Some believe that an exuberant amount of mass entertainment is bad because it drives out elite culture (Shils’ Elite Theory). From the opposing viewpoint, mass entertainment leads to shared-emotional experiences, which result in a common ground (Cultivation Theory). “There is no single entertainment theory but a number of different theories that may be and often have been combined in a very useful way” (Vorderer, 2003). Several notable theories developed by Dolf Zillmann help explain specific types of entertainment experiences.

Mood-management and selective-exposure theory intertwine to explain why and how the audience seeks entertainment. Both of these theories say that people try their best to keep their positive mood or attempt to change their negative disposition. We select our media based on the likelihood that it will leave us with a positive one. Affective-disposition theory states that we make value judgments of the characters within the medium based on our perceptions. As a consequence of our value judgments we prefer to see good things happen to the characters we like, and bad things happen to the characters we dislike. For example classic hero movies, Forrest Gump, and The Wizard of Oz all showcase our attachment to the dichotomy of feeling between good character’s and bad character’s actions. Excitation-transfer theory explains the reason why individuals choose suspenseful media. The relief of suspension caused by this type of media leads individuals to positive gratifications (e.g. horror movies).


The history of the literate cultures, who’s "medium" customarily also divides history from prehistory 10, is determined by two series of variables. The first series stands in relation to what philosophy since the Stoics has recognized, or failed to recognize, as a reference: To the extent that the content of a medium is always another medium 11 and that of writing (even for Aristotle 12) is speech, scripts can be classified according to whether they process everyday languages into pictographs or syllabic or phonemic signs.13 However to the extent that the medium of writing, probably for the first time, also couples storage and transmission, inscription and post, then physical variables relating to writing implements and writing surface decide as to the space and time frame of the communication. These variables dictate the time needed for transmitting and receiving, the permanence or eras ability of what is written and, not least, whether the information is transportable or not.

Mood-management and selective-exposure theory intertwine to explain why and how the audience seeks entertainment. Both of these theories say that people try their best to keep their positive mood or attempt to change their negative disposition. We select our media based on the likelihood that it will leave us with a positive one. Affective-disposition theory states that we make value judgments of the characters within the medium based on our perceptions. As a consequence of our value judgments we prefer to see good things happen to the characters we like, and bad things happen to the characters we dislike. For example classic hero movies, Forrest Gump, and The Wizard of Oz all showcase our attachment to the dichotomy of feeling between good character’s and bad character’s actions.

Excitation-transfer theory explains the reason why individuals choose suspenseful media. The relief of suspension caused by this type of media leads individuals to positive gratifications (e.g. horror movies). Hollywood is a neighborhood located in Los Angeles, California, that’s also synonymous with the glamour, money and power of the entertainment industry. As the show-business capital of the world, Hollywood is home to many famous television and movie studios and record companies. Yet despite its glitzy status, Hollywood has humble roots: It began as a small agricultural community and evolved into a diverse, thriving metropolis where stars are born and dreams come true—for a lucky few.

Types of Media and Entertainment

Exhibition entertainment (museums, art shows, trade exhibitions ,fairs), Live entertainment (theaters, circus, concert, dancing programs, fireworks etc ), Mass media entertainment industry (Tv, radio, fashion industry, TV& radio broadcasting, web media entertainment, film studios, etc etc you name it!), electronic entertainment (video games, electronic mgs contents) , music industry (concerts, orchestra, musicians). Movies, TV, Theater, Video Games, the internet, books, magazines and many others. Media is just the plural of medium, and a medium is anything that acts as a conduit, so anything you can use to enjoy yourself or be entertained is by definition an entertainment medium. Types of entertainment and media:

  1. Banquets 
  2. Music 
  3. Games
  4. Reading
  5. Comedy
  6. Performance
  7. Theatre 
  8. Cinema and Film 
  9. Dance 
  10. Animals 
  11. Circus 
  12. Magic 
  13. Street Performances 
  14. Parades 
  15. Fireworks
  16. Sports 
  17. Fairs, Expositions, Shopping

Banquets have been a venue for entertainment since ancient times, continuing until the 21st century, when they are still being used for many of their original purposes – to impress visitors, especially important ones; to show hospitality; as an occasion to showcase supporting entertainments such as music or dancing, or both.
Banquets In modern times, banquets are commercially available, for example, in restaurants and combined with a performance in dinner theatres. Cooking by professional chefs has also become a form of entertainment as part of global competitions.

Music is a supporting component of many kinds of entertainment and most kinds of performance. Music is also a universal and popular type of entertainment on its own, constituting an entire performance such as when concerts are given. The wide variety of musical performances, whether or not they are artificially amplified, all provide entertainment irrespective of whether the performance is from soloists, choral or orchestral groups, or ensemble.

Games are played for entertainment—sometimes purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. Equipment varies with the game. Board games, such as Go, Monopoly or backgammon need a board and markers. Other games, such as bingo, played with numerous strangers, have been organized to involve the participation of non- players via gambling. Many are geared for children, and can be played outdoors, including hopscotch, hide and seek, or Blind man's bluff. The list of ball games is quite extensive. It includes, for example, croquet, lawn bowling and paintball as well as many sports using various forms of balls.

Video games are played using a controller to create results on a screen. They can also be played online with participants joining in remotely. 

Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece. It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games.

Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording. Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain. Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct.

Theatre performances

Typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions“.

Theatre Performance Plays, musicals, monologues, pantomimes, and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand- up comedy. In the 20th century, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms.

Theatre Films

Its a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, aims to create a record or inform, although the two purposes often work together. Cinema/film performance increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences. Animation, for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences.


Animals have been used for the purposes of entertainment for millennia. They have been hunted for entertainment (as opposed to hunted for food); displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement. Performance animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses, dolphins in dolphin aria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ. Performance animals many contests between animals are now regarded as sports – for example, horse racing is regarded as both a sport and an important source of entertainment. People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches.

Performance animals

The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear- baiting, dog fighting and cockfighting. A circus, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms", is a special type of theatrical performance, involving acrobatics and often performing animals, usually thought of as a travelling show, although permanent venues have also been used. 


The form of entertainment known as stage magic or conjuring and recognizable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times.

Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: on stage, on television, in the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances.

Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries. Performance street entertainment It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre, puppeteering, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act. 
Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. 40. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Many religious festivals (especially those which incorporate processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi) have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose.

Fireworks are a part of many public entertainments and have retained an enduring popularity since they became a "crowning feature of elaborate celebrations" in the 17th century. Performance fireworks the "fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks is still a significant part of public celebration and entertainment. For example, fireworks were one of the primary forms of display chosen to celebrate the turn of the millennium around the world.

Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let off against the backdrop of many of the world's most famous buildings, including the Sydney Harbor Bridge, the Acropolis in Athens, Red Square in Moscow, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, and the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

Sport Sporting competitions have always provided entertainment for crowds. To distinguish the players from the audience, the latter are often known as spectators. Beyond the very large numbers involved in playing these sports, they are notable for being a major source of entertainment for many millions of non-players worldwide. Developments in stadium and auditorium design, as well as in recording and broadcast technology, have allowed off-site spectators to watch sport, with the result that the size of the audience has grown ever larger and spectator sport has become increasingly popular.
A comparable multi-stage, long-form sport with global appeal is the Tour de France, unusual in that it takes place outside of special stadia, being run instead in the countryside. Aside from sports that have world-wide appeal and competitions, such as the Olympic Games, the entertainment value of a sport depends on the culture and country in which it is played.

The evolution of an activity into a sport and then an entertainment is also affected by the local climate and conditions. For example, the modern sport of surfing is associated with Hawaii and that of snow skiing probably evolved in Scandinavia. Sometimes the climate offers a chance to adapt another sport such as in the case of ice hockey which is an important entertainment in Canada.

Fairs, expositions, shopping Fairs and exhibitions have existed since ancient and medieval times, displaying wealth, innovations and objects for trade and offering specific entertainments as well as being places of entertainment in themselves. As a form of spectacle and entertainment, expositions influenced "everything from architecture, to patterns of globalization, to fundamental matters of human identity” and in the process established the close relationship between "fairs, the rise of department stores and art museums“, the modern world of mass consumption and the entertainment industry.

Theory of Film

Film Theory in Media History explores the epistemological and theoretical foundations of the study of film through texts by classical authors as well as anthologies and monographs on key issues and developments in film theory.

Adopting a historical perspective, but with a firm eye to the further development of the field, the series provides a platform for ground-breaking new research into film theory and media history and features high-profile editorial projects that offer resources for teaching and scholarship. Combining the book form with open access online publishing the series reaches the broadest possible audience of scholars, students, and other readers with a passion for film and theory.

The very first theories of film were developed by an Italian named Ricotta Cando.  In 1911, he published “The Birth of the Seventh Art”, a book detailing the earliest thoughts on film theory. Cando was a “futurist” who published many works including “Music as a Religion of the Future”.  His works would influence various art forms but especially film.  He felt that film merged the tangible arts of sculpture, painting and architecture with dance, music and poetry to create a new art form. Early film theory began taking shape during the era of silent films and primarily was derived from European theories. Popular film theorists and directors of the time were Ducal (France), Eisenstein (Russia, “The Battleship Potemkin”), Rota (Britain, book “Documentary Film, 1936), and Kuleshov (Russia, Marxist Film Theory).

Production of Film

Camera - The most essential piece of equipment for your moving making endeavor is going to be a camera.  Sure, you can use a cheap camera to make a professional-looking film, but first decide what type of camera you can afford and what type would be best for your film.  For instance, if you want to achieve a homemade look for your movie, you can go with a cheap camcorder.  The $100-$200 range will get you something that is mobile, effective, and convenient.  The $500-$800 range is for more serious movie makers, so consider investing in a Panasonic or a Sony model if you want to get the most out of your equipment.

Location - Depending on the type of film you are going to make, finding a location can be difficult.  Write down the type of shots and scenery you are going to need for your film and find a space available to you that will provide you with what you need.  Keep in mind that most business or restaurants will be hesitant to let a beginning filmmaker use their space, but it does not hurt to ask.  A lot of people can be excited to be included in a film.

Scripting - Storyboard – The pre-production phase of a project is where all the planning takes place before the camera rolls. Whether its measured in minutes, hours or days, this planning phase sets the overall vision of the project. Pre-production also includes working out the shoot location and casting. You’re in pre-production mode the moment you start writing down a few points to cover in a video even if it is a short piece made for a blog. As your projects become more ambitious you can start to storyboard the project. Storyboards can really smooth out the post-production process when it’s time for editing. This will really be useful if there are multiple people working on the project.

In this stage you work out your filmmaking idea and how you will tell your story. Your idea should be simple. Try writing it down in 50 words or one tweet: if you can’t, you need to rethink it or simplify it. Once you’ve got your idea, write a script and make storyboards or shot lists. Make sure you have all the people and all the gear you need before you start shooting.

Shooting - The period immediately after shooting ends. It is when we strike (dismantle) the set and clear the location. Everything must be returned in good order to suppliers and there must be a full set of records of the shoot. This stage starts when principal photography ends, but they may overlap. The bulk of post-production consists of reviewing the footage and assembling the movie - editing. There will be contributions as required from Visual Effects (VFX), Music and Sound Design. The picture will now be locked and delivery elements will be created. Further information on Post Production can be found later on in Week 1 of the course.

Earn - Once the film is completed, it must be distributed. This is how producers make their money back and a considerable amount of time and energy will be invested to secure the right distribution deals for their projects. The film will go into the cinema and/or be distributed via various platforms such as Amazon Prime, Netflix, and HBO etc.

Types of Media

Modern media comes in many different formats, including print media (books, magazines, and newspapers), television, movies, video games, music, cell phones, various kinds of software, and the Internet. Each type of media involves both content, and also a device or object through which that content is delivered.

In general, "media" refers to various means of communication.

Print Media

Print media is the printed version of telling the news, primarily through newspapers and magazines. Before the invention and widespread use of printing presses, printed materials had to be written by hand. It was a painstaking process that made mass distribution impossible. Print media advertising is a form of advertising that uses physically printed media, such as magazines and newspapers, to reach consumers, business customers and prospects. Advertisers also use digital media, such as banner ads, mobile advertising, and advertising in social media, to reach the same target audiences. The proliferation of digital media has led to a decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media, but print isn't dead.

Print Media is a revolutionary evolution that has buried the gap of communication with the aid of tangible printed assets such as newspaper, magazines, letters etc. among various targeted groups of people so that the hierarchy of information would never get broken down due to slacking conversation.

Newspaper: It is one of the most important and effective forms of print media. It:

  • Informs people about various events, issues, and occurrences worldwide.
  • Helps readers to build an opinion about various national and international issues, events through its editorial and opinion columns.
  • Increases the sale of various goods and services through its advertisements.

Magazine: Magazines are the predecessor of the daily newspaper. They provide detailed articles on various topics such as food, fashion, sports, finance, lifestyle, and so on. Magazines are published weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annually. Many of them are sold all over the world.

Broucher: Also known as pamphlets, broacher’s contain information about the business or organization. They are mostly distributed by hand or sent through mails. It is a fantastic way to showcase your product to the new customers.

Social Media

Social media is the collective of online communications channels dedicated to community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Websites and applications dedicated to forums, micro blogging, social networking, social bookmarking, social duration, and wikis are among the different types of social media.

Top 10 social networking are…

  1. Facebook
  2. Instagram
  3. Whatsapp
  4. Pintrest
  5. Tumbler
  6. Google++
  7. Line
  8. Skype
  9. Twitter
  10. Bingo

Video Games

Available since the early 1980s, video games have only grown in popularity among youth. Today's games make use of advanced graphics and processors to enable three dimensional game play featuring highly realistic landscapes and physics simulations, and the ability to compete against other players through a network connection. Modern video games are immersive, exciting and increasingly interactive. Players feel like they really are in the situation because of the life-like graphics and sounds. Through video games, youth can extend their pretend play, as they become soldiers, aliens, race car drivers, street fighters, and football players.

Mass Media

Mass media is a significant force in modern culture, particularly in America. Sociologists refer to this as a mediated culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Communities and individuals are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources including TV, billboards, and magazines, to name a few. These messages promote not only products, but moods, attitudes, and a sense of what is and is not important. Mass media makes possible the concept of celebrity: without the ability of movies, magazines, and news media to reach across thousands of miles, people could not become famous. In fact, only political and business leaders, as well as the few notorious outlaws, were famous in the past. Only in recent times have actors, singers, and other social elites become celebrities or “stars.”


The U.S. media and entertainment (M&E) industry is the largest in the world. At $735 billion, it represents a third of the global M&E industry, and it includes motion pictures, television programs and commercials, streaming content, music and audio recordings, broadcast, radio, book publishing, video games, and ancillary services and products. The U.S. industry is expected to reach more than $830 billion by 2022, according to the latest Entertainment & Media Outlook by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PwC).

The largest worldwide grossing movie (Avatar, $2.7B for just the box office--no DVD, blue ray, broadcast or streaming in that) is still ahead of the largest selling game (GTA-V, $2.2B worldwide sales).GTA-V and GTA Online have made a combined $6Billion in revenue as of March 2018 with 90 Million copies sold; that of course puts it well ahead of any single Movie total, even including Streaming/Disk, etc. sales. Although it could be argued that because is continually having new content added, it’s hard to compare with a movie—which is unchanged except for perhaps a ‘director’s cut’, $6B is an amazing amount of revenue, and currently holds the record for the largest amount of revenue generated for an entertainment product of any kind.

That said, the “Harry Potter” franchise has grossed $7.7Billion (source) at the box office (not including disk or streaming), which could be argued to be analogous to GTA’s continually adding of new content.
The U.S. M&E market alone represents a third of the global market and will reach approximately $771 billion by 2019, up 8.6 percent from 2016. The largest U.S. M&E firms (calculated by 2016 revenues) across four broad industry segments, include: Penguin Random (Books), SONY (Music), Disney (Film), and Microsoft (Video Games). Many corporations have experienced significant convergence and moved from film or broadcast or news, for example, to offer a multitude of services across M&E sectors. The largest example is the acquisition that led to Comcast NBC Universal.

India offers a growing middle class of high-tech savvy consumers and vibrant media, entertainment and innovation sectors. It is a very challenging marketplace, with barriers, to trade such as high piracy threats to both physical and digital M&E sectors, and uncertain implementation of laws governing the M&E sectors. The IIPA reports online and mobile piracy, illegal file sharing of music, cam cording in theaters, and rampant signal piracy of pay TV content. Nonetheless, the M&E market grew 11.4 percent to reach $32.2 billion in 2017. There is robust growth in educational and professional e-books, but sales of consumer e-books are skyrocketing in India (including in English and many regional Indian languages). There is also steady growth in consumer and professional print and audio books; one of the few markets where hardcopies are still in demand. The movie industry in India is big business and box office revenues are growing steadily.

Impact of Media in Social Life

Social media has definitely made us closer to other parts of the world. We can contact anyone around the world at any time, with just a few keystrokes. Customers can tell brands exactly what they want. Businesses can then use that information to tailor their products of more appeal. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and others are a cost effective means of spreading the word and getting support. The social media has gained attention as the most media has gained attention as the most viable communication choice for the bloggers, article writers, and content creators.

One of the negative effects of social media or network is it leads to addiction. It can divert the focus and attention from a particular task. It lowers the motivational level of people especially teenager and students. Sometimes people share photos on social media that contains violence and sex which can damage the behavior of kids and teens and can involve them in crime related activities. In this, even with tight security, your personal information may leak on social sites. Some people commit suicide due to breakage of their relationship which they have built on social sites. They don’t know them personally and there are people who play with emotions of others.