Computer gaming information for online study; you can learn about digital computer gaming and related subjects, self-study and e-Learning courses about gaming.


Gaming is bigger than ever. The games industry is now larger than both cinema and music, and with the advent of mobile gaming, more people are playing games than ever before. However, the appeal of gaming is still a mystery for many people. Some of you will have played games when they were younger, but let the hobby fall by the wayside. Some of you will have never picked up a game in your life.

Games consoles are dedicated machines intended for home use. If youíve ever played an Atari, Sega Mega drive, Nintendo 64 or SNES then thatís the kind of machine weíre talking about. The biggest players in the console market are Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo ñ whose current models are PlayStation 4, Xbox One and Nintendo Switch (respectively). Additionally you have Nintendoís 3DS and Sonyís PlayStation Vita, which are commonly referred to as ìhandheldsî and are essentially miniature games consoles designed to be played on the go. Desktop computers and laptops are used by gamers just as much as consoles and are often built specifically to optimize the graphics and performance of games. Games on PC/Mac are played using game/publisher-specific software or sometimes through an internet browser. If youíve got a smartphone or a tablet, chances are itís capable of playing games. Games can be purchased through online stores like any other type of app, and downloaded straight onto your device, ready to play.


In October 1958, Physicist William Higginbotham created what is thought to be the first video game. It was a very simple tennis game, similar to the classic 1970s video game Pong, and it was quite a hit at a Brookhaven National Laboratory open house.  During that time, in October Brookhaven held annual visitorsí days, during which thousands of people would come tour the lab. Higginbotham was responsible for creating an exhibit to show off the instrumentation divisionís work.

Most of the existing exhibits were rather dull. Higginbotham thought he could better capture visitorsí interest by creating an interactive demonstration. He later recalled in a magazine interview that he had thought ìit might liven up the place to have a game that people could play, and which would convey the message that our scientific endeavors have relevance for society.î The instrumentation group had a small analog computer that could display various curves, including the path of a bouncing ball, on an oscilloscope. It took Higginbotham only a couple of hours to conceive the idea of a tennis game, and only a few days to put together the basic pieces. Having worked on displays for radar systems and many other electronic devices, Higginbotham had no trouble designing the simple game display. Tennis for Two had none of the fancy graphics video games use today. The cathode ray tube display simply showed a side view of a tennis court represented by just two lines, one representing the ground and a one representing the net. The ball was just a dot that bounced back and forth. Players also had to keep score for themselves. The first version, used in the 1958 visitorís day, had an oscilloscope with a tiny display, only five inches in diameter. The next year, Higginbotham improved it with a larger display screen. He also added another feature: the game could now simulate stronger or weaker gravity, so visitors could play tennis on the moon, Earth or Jupiter. After two years, Tennis for Two was retired. The oscilloscope and computer were taken for other uses, and Higginbotham designed a new visitorís day display that showed cosmic rays passing through a spark chamber. Higginbothamís main interest throughout most of his career was not video games, but nuclear arms control. He helped found the Federation of American Scientists and served as its first chairman and executive secretary. Higginbotham died in November 1994, more famous for his video game than his work on nonproliferation. Video games have been around since the early 1970s. The first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades. An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space. He left Nutting Associates to found Atari, which then produced Pong, the first truly successful commercial arcade video game.

Who is Gamer?

A gamer is a hobbyist or individual that enjoys playing various types of digital or online games. Generally, a gamer refers to any kind of gaming enthusiast, but when used in IT, the term refers to those that utilize a full range of electronic or digital games. Digital gaming is a diverse environment that can take a variety of forms - from basic games adapted from PC versions to play on smartphones or other mobile devices, to more elaborate role-playing or competitive games that work through IP networks. Most discussions between gamers focus on those that engage in multi-user "worlds" enabled by global broadband connections. However, in some cases, gaming refers to broader trends in mobile device gaming, where individual apps are popular with larger user groups.

The One who doesn't brag about his COD, CS skills. A true gamer helps knob to develop his skills and respects all type of gaming consoles. It doesn't matter to him if he is playing on a console or PC as long as he is comfortable to play in it. He tries different games like limbo, no man's sky, inside. And most importantly he doesn't simply run around and kill innocent GTA pedestrians. A true Gamer respects every 3d character models of animal and humans and doesnít blow their head unless and until it is necessary.

Gaming Console

Gaming refers to playing electronic games, whether through consoles, computers, mobile phones or another medium altogether. Gaming is a nuanced term that suggests regular gameplay, possibly as a hobby. Although traditionally a solitary form of relaxation, online multiplayer video games have made game a popular group activity as well. Itís a great time to shop for the best gaming console. There are several choices in improved hardware, such as Sonyís PS4 Pro, Microsoftís Xbox One X, and sub-platforms like PlayStation VR. If youíre on a budget, the original versions of these consoles are now sold at more affordable prices.

PlayStation 4 Pro

The PlayStation 4 Pro is the best version of the most popular game platform available today. With 4K, HDR 10 compatibility, and the PlayStation 4ís exclusive game library, it is currently the best plug-and-play gaming platform. A very large majority of both the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One libraries are available on both platforms. Though both platforms have popular exclusive franchises, the PlayStation 4 (Pro or standard) sees more exclusive games each year. The PS4 also has access to a small number of less well-known indie games and niche titles, such as Japanese role-playing games, that the Xbox One does not. Thatís the main reason for our pick. The PS4 has the best games, and the PS4 Pro makes them look as stunning as possible. The Xbox One X is technically even more powerful ó but it lacks must-have exclusives. Thereís just not as much to play.

Xbox One X

Sony led the charge on the mid-generation console update with the PS4 Pro but, by taking its time, Microsoft gave us the better hardware in the Xbox One X. It offers the same 4K Blu-ray and HDR video playback as the One S, while also bringing that visual enhancement to games. Microsoft wasnít exaggerating when they told us that the Xbox One X is the most powerful home gaming console ever sold. It wonít be getting VR, however ó which may disappoint those hoping it could be an inexpensive entry point to high-quality VR experiences.

The PS4 may still have a stronger gaming library than the Xbox One, but the Proís improvements are only noticeable in games that have been specifically enhanced for it. The Xbox One X has proven far better at using its extra horsepower to improve the visuals of all games on the platform, enhanced or not. Microsoft is also doubling down on investing in first-party studios, such as Rare, which recently released Sea of Thieves, and the company recently acquired big-name studios like Ninja Theory and Playground Games, as wel

Nintendo Switch

Nintendo sidestepped the current console arms race by changing not how you use your console, but where. The Switch is a hybrid device that plugs into a television like the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, but also works as a handheld. While it doesnít quite have the oomph to play the latest 4K, 60 fps releases for Xbox One or PS4, the Switch can play Doom (2016) at a smooth 30 fps anywhere you want to, and thatís more than good enough for a lot of gamers. In addition to contemporary titles like the Wildenstein II port, the Switch has also proved itself as a fantastic venue for reviving modern classics, such as Sky rim, L.A. Noire, and the upcoming Dark Souls Premastered.

More than just a clearance house for lightly-aged AAA titles, the Switch also offers an ever-growing catalog of fantastic first-party games like Super Mario Odyssey and The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, as well as excellent indies such as Star dew Valley, Celeste, and Dead Cells. Add in some forward-looking experiments with Nintendo Lebo, and the Switch is looking like an incredibly well-rounded platform with something unique to offer everyone.

SNES Classic Edition

The 16-bit era saw Nintendo at the peak of its creativity, releasing popular acclaimed games like The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Super Metroid alongside cult hits like Earthbound. With the plug-and-play SNES Classic Edition, you can experience all over your favorite classic Super Nintendo games like you remembered them. Thereís even a CRT filter option mimicking the look of your old television. 

With the addition of a save-state feature, playing old Nintendo games on the SNES Classic is significantly less frustrating than it was 25 years ago, and when youíre ready to sit down and game with a buddy, classics like Super Mario Kart and Street Fighter II Turbo: Hyper Fighting give you a chance to compete for bragging rights.

Who invented first Video Game?

The first true video game wouldn't be invented until 1967 when an engineer named Ralph H. Baer created the first prototype of what would eventually become the Magnavox Odyssey, the world's first video game console. Baer, often known as the ìFather of Video Games," was the first person to create a system that transformed electronic signals into pictures on a television screen via a raster patternÖor what we now know as a video game. The original Magnavox Odyssey featured a few simple games, such as a chase game, checkers, and a shooting game using a rifle peripheral device. The system came with two paddle controllers, as well as a few other accessories usually associated with board games. It was a huge success, selling over 700,000 units in its first three years of production. 

As video games made their way into homes, their popularity skyrocketed and others soon began to develop competing systems. Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney created Atari Computers in 1972. In 1975, Atari released Pong as a home video game, leading to a huge increase in the popularity of video games.

Video Game Art

Advances in computer technology over the last 40 years provided the means whereby artists could attempt to solve a recurrent problem at the heart of modernism: How to involve the audience in the art work? Those working in theater and performance arts experimented with happenings and participatory theatre, trying to bring the audience into the performance. However, the problem was more difficult for artists working in film and literature, where we find novelistic experiments such as Cortazar's Hopscotch struggling with the limitations of the medium. Video games allowed artists to tackle a more difficult sub-problem facing non-performed arts, the problem of how to involve the audience in mechanically reproduced art.

This is the first and only time Collingwood uses the term "concretive" in The Principles of Art, and just as Collingwood himself left the notion somewhat unexplained, concreativity has been almost completely ignored in the philosophy of art.

In A Philosophy of Mass Art, Noel Carroll makes one of the few contemporary references to Collingwood's term. Carroll sees Collingwood's criticisms of non-concretive art as one species of the passivity charge against mass art, the claim that mass art is inherently defective because it reduces the audience to mindless drones, thereby prohibiting the free play of the imagination that genuine art provokes. On this reading, Collingwood is complaining that the audience is made a mere receptacle by mass art and that mass art is defective by virtue of its pacifying effect. Although this may be part of Collingwood's criticism, I think his emphasis lies elsewhere. Rather than criticizing mass art for its pacifying effect on the audience, Collingwood is diagnosing what he sees as a source of limitation on the expressive potential of mechanically reproduced art. It is not the art work's supposed deleterious effects on the audience that is at issue but the inability of the audience to provide feedback to help the artist create the most effective work possible.

Gaming Taxonomies

In this scheme we can place avatar worlds and vehicle simulators at the simulation extreme. Early avatar worlds were three dimensional virtual spaces in which a user could be represented by a movable avatar. These worlds rarely presented much to do, however, since they lacked any ludic or narrative content. Board games and games that do not represent any kind of fictional world, such as Tetris, belong at the game play extreme. These games are very abstract, but still engaging. Tetris can be placed above and to the less narrative side of chess, since chess is an abstracted representation of warfare, while Tetris presents a very active functional model. 

At the narrative extreme we place the fixed narrative structures of digital linear movies. Multipath movies hint at game-like interaction by presenting choices for the viewer, while hypertext adventures provide a high degree of interaction in the player's creation of specific narrative experiences. Action games, strategy games and RPGs incorporate prominent features of all forms, being games, simulators and narratives. RPGs generally have more narrative content than action games, and strategy games have more simulation than narrative. 

Gambling and a Three-Dimensional Classification Space

Gaming is often also understood in the sense of gambling. The world of computer gamers usually appears to be very separate from the world of gambling, although gambling companies are certainly game companies that deliver many gambling products as games. To continue with our definition fetish, we can define gambling as: decisions of gain or loss made by chance within a framework of agreed rules.

  1. Production of Video Game
  2. Creating the story

Writers are responsible for creating a game's story complete with a setting, characters, and plot. This gives the game a purpose and makes it more enjoyable for the player. It also provides an objective for the player and a guideline for the rules of the game. This information is then used to create the game's manual. Often, the inspiration for a story is derived from popular movies or books. The story is transferred to storyboards, where preliminary drawings are also added.

Capturing action with art

After the type of game and story are outlined, the game's format can be determined. The format refers to what the player sees when playing the game. A variety of formats exist including platform, top-down, scrolling, isometric, three dimension (3D),and text. Platform games are those that feature a side view of the player's character. Top-down games give a bird's eye view of the player's character. They are often used for war games. The isometric format is a top-down game, which uses perspective tricks to give the illusion of 3D. True 3D games are just now becoming a reality with the introduction of CDs and DVDs. These represent the future of computer game formats. Text game formats have limited graphics and are only used for interactive fiction.

Writing the program

When all of the preliminary design elements are determined, programming, or coding, can begin. The first step in this process is drawing a flowchart, which shows the logical progression of the computer program. A variety of programming languages are used such as C++, Java, or visual BASIC. The code is typically produced by a team of programmers, each working on a different phase of the game, and can take up to seven months to produce. To speed the coding process, previously developed algorithms are often modified and adapted to the new game. This is more efficient because it eliminates the need to continually rewrite similar programs and reduces the chances of serious errors. Each action can require many individual instructions written by the programmer, and roughly 250,000 individual commands are written to create a video game program. Sound and graphics must also be programmed separately. 


The testing phase of game development helps reveal fundamental design and programming problems. Testing can be completed in a number of ways. The programmers can run the game and try to discover gross problems themselves. Additionally, professional play testers are used. These are people who are specifically trained to play the games and look for subtle errors. They are typically game designers themselves, and have experience with many types of games. Beyond finding errors, play testers also give criticisms and suggestions to make the game better. In some cases, computer game developers use people from the general population to test games. This gives them information about consumer acceptance. The information obtained from the testing phase is reviewed. Reprogramming is then done until the game is appropriately tweaked.

Burning the disks

When the programming is completed, the game code is transferred to a master compact disk. This disk will be used to mass produce the thousands of copies needed. The master disk is composed of a smoothly polished glass coated with an adhesive and a photo resistive material. This disk is put into a laser-cutting machine. While the disk is spun, the binary code from the computer game's program sends a signal to the laser. The laser will then cut pits in the photo resistive coating corresponding to the program. The disk is then chemically etched and given a metal coating. At this point, it is an exact replica of a finished disk.

To mass produce plastic compact disks, the stamping copies are put into a die in an injection molding machine. In this machine, polycarbonate pellets are placed in a hopper and drawn through a long screw device. While it is drawn, the plastic becomes molten. It is then injected into the die with the stamping copy. It is held under pressure for a few moments and then allowed to cool. As it cools, it hardens giving it exactly the same pattern of pits as the master copy. It is then released from the die and inspected for flaws. If any flaws are found, the disk is rejected.

Quality Control

The process of transferring the computer game program to a compact disk, or DVD, must be done in a clean, dust-free environment. This is because dust particles are much larger than the pits carved in a disk, and a single particle can ruin a disk. Therefore, strict quality control measures are taken to control the environment around the disk-making process. Other visual inspections are done at various points during the disk manufacture. Random samples of finished disks are also tested to make sure the program is working properly. Beyond the checks involved in disk manufacture, the other components of the game are also checked to ensure they meet the required specifications. At the end of the manufacturing process, random samples of the finished product are checked to make sure it includes all of the necessary components.

The Future

Computer game programming continues to become more sophisticated as the available hardware improves. The most important recent advancement that promises to revolutionize gaming is the development of DVD technology. This will allow a much greater amount of information to be included in the game's program. This should improve many aspects of the game such as the artificial intelligence routines, the graphics, and the special effects. Things such as video clips will be included to make the games more interactive.

Prediction Spectrum

2017 was a wild ride for gamers of all kinds, serving up arguably one of the best years for the medium ever, while introducing several new gaming trends - both good and bad - and setting the stage for what will come to define 2018 in gaming.

Just a month into 2018, it has already been a huge, surprising year for gaming, with a number of titles receiving unexpectedly strong acclaim - namely Monster Hunter World, Celeste, Dragon Ball Fightersí and Subnautica to name just a few.

GOTY is a mystery game, yet to be announced

Correct! Because I count PUBG as a worthy choice for game of the year and it came out of NOWHERE and became a decade defining phenomenon like Counter-Strike once was.

Kingdom Hearts 3 and The Last of Us 2 get no release date and only teases.

Sure, an easy one to make in hindsight, but it wasnít at the beginning of last year and Iíll make similar claims about this year with these two games and more soon. I expect delays as far as the eye can see, for anything and everything.

E3 is good again? It wasnít as bad as the last few years, but nowhere near as godlike as what we remember it being in our childhoods. Holy shit I am old.

There will be an industry freak out over something money related.

Iím going to count this one. With loot boxes, blind boxes, EAís gross versus revenue, and the price tag / budget of Hell blade, I think the industry and #gamers really got blindsided by how sinister and conniving 21st century capitalism has corrupted every facet of life. We are more aware of money now than weíve ever been as a country, and a society. And the fucking ESA still wonít reveal sales figures, what garbage.

Reviews will die, they did to me, and while itís not quantifiable in any real capacity (websites will still review games), I think they are essentially as useless as user reviews. IGN gave Prey a 4.0, and then they didnít. PUBG got both a 9.5 and 5.0 from IGNÖand then didnít. Fortnite came out in a box at full price, and hasnít traditionally been released yet by old standards. Letís just throw all of it out the window and start again. And not to pick on IGN, theyíre just the most high profile examples, but itís impossible to review games like we used to; on a scale, with a score or number or letter grade, in a release window as tight as possible, or like how we review monitors and televisions and keyboards. Itís impossible. Just review games like movies; the best stuff comes out decades afterward and doesnít incorporate what it cost or anything nonsense like that.

Game of the Year

The biggest award of the show is the prestigious Game of the Year award. This award goes to only the best of the best of the year in gaming.

This award probably has the toughest competition out of all of them with no clear winner, yet there is most definitely a clear loser. The nominees for this award are the Ancient Greece simulator ìAssassinís Creed Odyssey,î the indie game ìCeleste,î the Norse god killing simulator ìGod of War,î the web-slinging spectacular ìMarvelís Spider-Man,î the large-scale hunting simulator ìMonster Hunter: Worldî and the ambitious ìRed Dead Redemption 2.î

Best Game Direction

This award goes to the game and game studio that has shown outstanding creative vision and innovation in their games. This category is filled with very story heavy single-player experiences this year. The nominees for this category are the prison escape simulator ìA Way Outî, the android story ìDetroit: Become Human,î the Norse god game ìGod of War,î some more web-slinging fun with ìMarvelís Spider-Manî and of course ìRed Dead Redemption 2.î 

If it goes to the most unique of them, it will most likely be ìA Way Out.î However, ìRed Dead Redemption 2î is a tough contender.


An avatar is the embodiment of a person or idea. However, in the computer world, an avatar specifically refers to a character that represents an online user. Avatars are commonly used in multiplayer gaming, online communities, and Web forums. An avatar is a personalized graphical illustration that represents a computer user or a character or alter ego that represents that user. An avatar can be represented either in three-dimensional form (for example, in games or virtual worlds) or in two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and virtual worlds. Avatars are used widely on websites and in online role-playing games. They are an integral part of Internet chat, Internet messaging systems, blogs and artificial intelligence, particularly virtual reality.

Online multiplayer role-playing games (MMORPGs) such as World of War craft and Ever Quest allow users to create custom characters. These characters serve as the players' avatars. For example, a World of War craft player may choose a Paladin with blue armor as his avatar. As the player progresses in the game, his character may gain items and experience, which allows the avatar to evolve over time. Avatars are also used in online communities, such as Second Life and The Sims Online. These avatars can be custom-designed to create a truly unique appearance for each player. Once a user has created an avatar, he or she becomes part of an online community filled with other users' avatars. Players can interact with other avatars and talk to them using text or voice chat. It's no surprise that "Second Life" refers to a virtual life that players live through their avatars. Finally, avatars may also see in Web forums. Online discussion boards typically require users to register and provide information about them. Many give users the option to select an image file that represents the user's persona. This image, combined with a made-up username, serves as a person's avatar. For example, a user may select a picture of a Pac-Man and choose the name "pac32" for his avatar. This avatar typically appears next to each posting the user contributes in an online forum.

Casualization of Gaming

In Nintendo Case

It seems impossible to understand the success of games like Wii Fit or Brain Age without taking into account the equipment they rely on. Nintendo, which had always been well-known for the priority it gives to the ease of access of its games and machines, was undoubtedly a great pioneer of casualization, offering more user-friendly equipment than its competitors. The handheld game console DS, released in 2004 in America and Japan and in 2005 in Europe, offered a new way of playing with its touch screen and its stylus, a technology previously reserved for smartphones and reproducing the daily movement of handling a pen. The simplicity of this handling, in association with the wealth of games produced for all audiences (Mario Karts, Cooking Mama, Nintendoís) granted the console substantial success, and confirmed Nintendo as a force to be reckoned with in the democratization of video games. The DSi XL, a new version of the console released in 2009, confirmed the casual orientation Nintendo had chosen on the market: bundled with Brain Age and equipped with a larger and brighter screen than the original DS, the idea was clearly to target a middle-aged audience.

We can note the predominance of Nintendo, both as console maker and game seller. This list shows, in spite of a few exceptions (like the presence of Grand Theft Auto, a typical hardcore game for young adults and teenage males), the dominance of family-friendly and convivial games like Wii Sports, Wii Play, Mario Kart, etc. Other games, like Nintendoís or Brain Age, are emblematic of the success of Nintendoís casual gaming approach. The success of the Wii, produced starting in 2006, followed this strategy and divided the game consoles market: on the one hand, Microsoft and Sony, and on the other hand, Nintendo. Xbox 360 and PS3, released in 2005 and 2006/2007 respectively, followed the traditional strategy of the game consoles market: a better computing power to display more advanced graphics, more multimedia possibilities, etc.

Gaming Industry

The gaming industry is no longer a niche arena for a certain age group or consumer segment. With the advent of mobile gaming and improvements to hardware used in playing these games, gaming has become a viable form of entertainment for players from all backgrounds and ages. This switch to mainstream has also meant an increase in revenues generated by the industry with about US $34.5 billion generated in the United States in 2016, 68.7 billion on 2017 and 95.1 billion in 2018.

The improvements to hardware such as sound cards, graphics and faster processors have meant a related growth and development of the gaming industry as well. As a result, modern games, especially those that are PC based, have become very demanding as applications and serious gamers are among those who purchase high-powered personal computers to keep up with the newest games.