Perceptions, Palmistry, Telepathy information for online study; you can learn about perceptions and related subjects, self-study and e-Learning courses.


Perception is the awareness of something through the senses. In other words it's the ability to see, hear, understand or become aware of something. Perception is important due to the following reasons. Perception is a process by which people regard, analyze, retrieve and react to any kind of information from the environment. For example, some people feel happy about earning money while others feel happy about spending money. It's a physiological process through which everything is this world is interpreted and understood. It's the way people perceive things that defines their character and attitude. Kindness, hate, love and all other emotions originate from one's perceptions about something. Itís just perception which defines what happiness means to a person. Human perception towards god is the main reason why are having so many religions today. It not just shows that perceptions are varied but also perceptions of a few have the ability to influence the mankind as a whole.

Perceptions help in shaping up a person's goal and his/her outlook on life. It's the thing that initiates anyone to find their purpose in life. So, many years ago I was deployed to a contested area where a village has an area that had two geographically separated mountainous abutments clearly overlooked each other. Each abutment could clearly see the other, but complex geography and spiraling roads separated the two outcropping areas by a good hour. But as the crows flies, you could almost throw a rock across the spans. Each mountaintop had a different ethnic group and there was constant tension between the two groups. Every time there was a report or complaint of ethnic strife I would have to get in my vehicle and drive to each side and receive a report, compare the two reports and see if further action should be taken. The reality was that each side would eat dinner and after dinner and many drinks the men would go outside and take potshots across to the other the other side. And the women would call and complain.

Types of Perceptions

Different Types of Perceptions

  1. Amodal perception
  2. Color perception
  3. Depth perception
  4. Form perception
  5. Haptic perception
  6. Speech perception
  7. Perception as Interpretation
  8. Numeric Value of Perception
  9. Pitch perception

Our imagination is the first factor that sets restrictions for us.There is one golden rule of life. Success doesnít come to people who wait but it comes to people who choose to pursue their goals and dreams.

Stages of Perceptions


The occurrence of sensory stimulation basically this part of perception process involves in contact with a particular stimulus. The world is full of stimuli that can attract our attention through various senses. Thus we are able to describe systematically the sights, sound, smell and taste that populate our conscious experience. Stimulation includes selective attention and selective exposure. Selective attention occurs by anticipating fulfill needs and prove enjoyable (Rooks & Willson, 2000, Devito, 2009). For example, friends talking to you but you were daydreaming. You wonít hear what they are saying until they called out your name. Selective exposure occurs by exposing information that will confirm existing beliefs, contributing to objectives and having a state of satisfaction.


The capacity to identify and recognize objects and events is crucial for normal perception. Without that capacity, people cannot effectively use their senses. Organized by rules, people perceive things that are physically close together constitute a unit. People developed schemata from actual experiences as well as vicarious experience from daily activities or from television, reading or hearsay ( Devito , 2009) Some familiarity represented in mind will be some kind of schema. This would help oneís perception to categories into number of categories. However, it may cause perception errors as it influences oneís to perceive nonexistence things or miss seeing things in presence.


After some time, the memories that are stored individuals want to recall certain information. Recall stage reconstruct what individual heard in a way that are meaningful. Recall information that consistent with schemas. However failure to do so, it is inconsistent with schemas. Recall information drastically contradicts oneís schema because it forces individual to think or even rethink ( Devito,2009).

Reducing uncertainty in Perception

Uncertainties in perception have many causes. Individual does not make themselves thinking the best way to define their own interpersonal processes. Individual analyzed their own logical and critical thinking through their own emotional and physiological state to influence the depth meaning of their own perceptions. For better understanding of perception, they have to reduce the uncertainties to achieve greater accuracy in perception. There are various ways to reduced uncertainties. For example, having an informal social activity people are more likely to reveal their true selves or they have the tendency to monitor their behavior less than a formal activity.


In this interpretation-evaluation stage it is two process of stimuli by individual experiences, needs, wants, values, expectations, physical and emotional state, gender and beliefs meaning based on by individualís rules, schemata and scripts. For example meeting a new person who is a doctor, oneís tend to view this person as someone serious, successful, health conscious, academic strong. In other words, evaluating individuals depending on oneís own script the way individual behave and perform the action appropriate or inappropriate ( Devito, 2009).


After undergoing the stages of stimulation, organization and interpretation-evaluation, this leads us to another stage called memory. It is storage of both perception and interpretation-evaluation that are kept according to scripts and schemas Events or experiences is not the objective of recollection but is more likely heavily influenced by individualís preconceptions and individuals schemata (Russell, 1976).

Theories of Perceptions

In order to receive information from the environment we are equipped with sense organs e.g. eye, ear, and nose.  Each sense organ is part of a sensory system which receives sensory inputs and transmits sensory information to the brain. A particular problem for psychologists is to explain the process by which the physical energy received by sense organs forms the basis of perceptual experience. Sensory inputs are somehow converted into perceptions of desks and computers, flowers and buildings, cars and planes; into sights, sounds, smells, taste and touch experiences.

A major theoretical issue on which psychologists are divided is the extent to which perception relies directly on the information present in the stimulus.  Some argue that perceptual processes are not direct, but depend on the perceiver's expectations and previous knowledge as well as the information available in the stimulus itself. An example of our perception of the things we look at and how it can differ depending upon the person would be The Dress. The Dress that became an internet phenomenon over-night, because people couldnít agree on what color it was. Some people swore that they saw a white dress with gold lace, while others saw a blue dress with black lace. Scientists studied the dress and came to the conclusion that the different perception in color is due to the expectation that the dress will appear the same under different lighting, explaining color constancy. People, who saw the dress as white and gold, probably saw that the dress was lit by sunshine, causing their brains to ignore the shorter, bluer wavelengths. The people that saw the dress as blue and black, saw it lit by a false lighting; causing their brains to ignore longer, redder wavelengths (Lewis). Oliver Sacks, a famous physician, professor, and author of unusual case studies, is viewed as a brilliant individual for his work; however, cannot do a simple task such as recognizing himself in a mirror. He has a form of Prosopagnosia, which is a neurological disorder that impairs an individualís ability to perceive or recognize faces. This is also known as face blindness. He can perceive other information, such as his own handwriting, or book on a shelf, but is not able to recognize a close friend in a crowd. His Fusiform Gyros, thought to be crucially involved in face perception, is malfunctioning. Many studies show that other parts of the brain such as the occipital lobe, and amygdala also play a key role in this disorder (Jenkins, Sensation & Perception). This controversy is discussed with respect to Gibson (1966) who has proposed a direct theory of perception which is a 'bottom-up' theory, and Gregory (1970) who has proposed a constructivist (indirect) theory of perception which is a 'top-down' theory.

Reality of Perceptions

Imagine you're driving and your car breaks down. To make matters worse, your phone is dead. You pull off into the closest parking lot, which just happens to be for a strip club. You walk in to use the phone to call a tow truck. As you're walking out, your spouse's best friend drives by and happens to see you walking out.

This is what the phrase ìperception is realityî means. No one can know your true intentions, no one sees what you say or do in privacy. We are judged by our actions and words that others can see and hear. This is why judges can't try cases where they are connected to one of the parties. Merely the appearance of a conflict of interest is enough to cause a mistrial. Your intent will always up for interpretation, for good or for ill. So be smart. Two people can look at the same thing, and perceive it in two different ways. Itís not so much what we see, but how we perceive it that shapes our thought, emotions, and actions about it. Therefore our perceptions become our reality. Dr. Bruce Lipton in his book ëíThe Biology of Beliefíí states that through our emotions we can control our biochemistry. So it is not so much whatís happening in our environment, as how we perceive it (feel about it). One of the main takeaways from his epigenetic research is that when we stop seeing ourselves as being the victims of predisposition, we can prevent nearly 95% of diseases.