Politics

Politics

Politics information for online study; you can learn about politics and related subjects, self-study and e-Learning courses about politics.

Politics

According to Aristotle, “Politics is a noble activity in which men decide the rules they will live by and the goals they will collectively pursue.” This correlates with his definition of the State: “State comes into existence originating in the bare needs of life and continues to exist for the sake of good life.” Politics is the Science of Society, the Psychology of Statecraft and the Process of Polity.

It is said that “Politics is War without bloodshed, and War is Politics with bloodshed” —Mao Zedong. Chairman Mao couldn’t have known how vicious American Politics would get, but he was right. Politics is the very system with which people rule over entire societies. As a wild animal there is less (not no) need for politics but, as a domesticated animal, as humans need to be in order to survive in a civilization (in villages, towns, and cities) politics are the means of living with others that you don’t choose to live with. As soon as you begin to live alongside that other that your chosen family you need to find the means of coping with the inevitable clash of wants and needs without resorting to expensive violence. Politics is the give and take of negotiations to achieve an agreement that all can cope with - preferably one that all are happy with. As communities get bigger we move from simple discourse and agreement to representative democracy - unless something goes wrong and we’re lumbered with a form of acquiescing or imposed dictatorship. The politics definition may seem broad but this is because politics itself is broad. It is a huge subject matter. Even if someone spent their entire life reading and researching politics, they would still have gaps and misunderstanding. Politics definition was originally developed by great thinkers like Aristotle. He was the philosopher to begin to classify the many different types of state governments, like monarchies, democracies, tyrannies, aristocracies, oligarchies and democracies. Many Americans consider democracy to be the best political system. The origin of the word “politics” comes from Greek, and means “affairs of the city”. It has grown to encompass more than just city affairs, but civics, and state affairs. Furthermore, the development of the international affairs/politics field has given way to even more classifications and study.

Politics can be science or art, in terms of academic pursuit. Much of politics is rooted in the understanding of law, as well; so many students of law inherently must be knowledgeable of politics. In fact, the political science undergraduate degree is the most common course of study for those advancing on to a law program.

Politics is always associated with power; there is deep nexus between both of them. Politics is purposed at distribution if power among all the individuals. As power is always competition and cause clash in a society. If there is no politics then power will go to confine in few hands even might be based violent conflict or any sorts of clash. Common people come together to agree upon the tenets upon which they will found a society that may last 1,000 years. This is far from an easy choice, but it’s one that must be made. Politics is the tool people use that allows them to put aside their petty differences and agree on something. People are nearly impossible to corral, so when they stop fighting and agree on something, it’s a miracle. Politics is the miraculous tool that makes people listen, as opposed to non-stop fighting. You know how I said that Politics is War without bloodshed? It’s true, but we need to remember something.

“We don’t promote war, we prepare for Peace. Peace is our profession”— Ronald Reagan.

Politics Classification

Well, in a general view there are only two classes of politics The Good one and The Bad one. Yes, that's true. The political class which serve the society selflessly belong to the first class and those who care for themselves not society is the latter class. The dilemma of Indian politics is that we have a multi-party system where you will find new party in every corner of our country. This make people nothing but confused whom to give vote. Different parties have different mindset and ideology.

Moreover, Political parties change their values according to their profitability. So above mentioned two classes are simple and easy to understand for general public without making it too complicate.

Politics Ideologies

Absolutism

System where the rulers have unlimited control.

Anarchism

Society without government, laws, police or other authority. System of self-control.

Aristocracy

The privilege of social class whose members possess disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige and political influence.

Autocracy

Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated.

Capitalism

Right-wing political system where the principle means of production and distribution are in private hands.

Communism

Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs.

Conservatism

Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention.

Democracy

Government by the people usually through elected representatives.

Dictatorship 

Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state.

Egalitarianism

Belief where all citizens have equal rights and privileges.

Fascism

Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class.

Imperialism

The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries.

Liberalism

Representative government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual.

Marxism

Developed by Marx and Engle’s, it proposes that all is subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle.

Maoism

Interpretation of Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture.

Monarchy

A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen.

Nationalism

The unification of the state and release from foreign rule.

Oligarchy

A system of government in which virtually all power is held a small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves.

Populism

Collective noun for the ideologies which demand the redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the 'common people'.

Socialism

Left-wing political system where the principle means of production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership.

Theocracy

Rule by the church.

Totalitarianism

Government control of all activities.

Trotskyism

Form of Marxism incorporating the concept of permanent revolution.

History of State Politics

Politics originated the first time two individuals found it necessary to negotiate an interchange between them.  The political system that currently dominates world governments was not invented, it evolved. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, remarkable men in their own right and honored as they should be for their contributions to our nation's founding, are also the men who cultured the germs of our present disease.  They did not trust the people to resolve the issues of the day.  Instead, certain that their own view of the issues facing the new nation was superior to anyone else's, they built organizations to help them aggregate the political power they needed to impose their views on the nation. Very much a "layer cake", different levels created by different societies at different times. The Westminster Parliament, basically English but with some Scottish input, was also the first to accept the idea of rival parties and a "loyal opposition" that might become the next government.  This began in 1688 but was shaky for some time afterwards.  And it was not democratic: there was no secret ballot till the 1870s and only from the 1880s did a majority of adult males have the vote. The Survived the idea of a Republic and combined it with both democracy (white males only) and a powerful centralized state.  Switzerland had been a Republic for much longer, but it was an isolated development that had little direct influence. The French Revolution pioneered the idea of all adult males having a vote and being citizens.  And mass participation in politics, though women didn't get the vote in France till 1944.

George Washington sat amid these strong personalities, and, as long as he was able, mediated the matters that concerned the country.  As he did so, the dangers that awaited us were so apparent to him that he used his Farewell Address to warn us "in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party".  He called partisanship an unquenchable fire that "demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume", and predicted parties were likely to become "potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government".

Political Values

A political value is something you believe in that relates to how government should operate, whom it should serve or not serve, who pays for it and who benefits. At the heart of this is the question, “what is a public good.” A public good is anything whose benefit cannot be divided, that cannot only benefit those who pay for it. The most commonly cited is national defense. If the government builds a wall of anti-ballistic missiles to prevent bombs from reaching us, you are protected whether you pay taxes or not. At its simplest, this is a public good. However, things get complicated and controversial after that because political goods, like all other goods, cost money. For instance, is public education a public good? If you value an educated citizenry, then it is. If you don’t, and you don’t want your tax dollars going to pay for public schools because you can afford private school, then it’s not. Liberals value the collective over the individual. They believe in equality of outcome over equality of opportunity. They believe in a lot of regulation, government intrusion, a big government bureaucracy to support it. If you are going to have higher government involvement and programs you are going to need higher taxes. They believe in a highly regulated form of capitalism. They will force people into markets they create and call it free market capitalism. Conservatism is the belief that big government with its intrusion and regulation stifles economic growth. They believe that government is not the solution, it is the problem. They believe somewhat in individuals being left alone, it is the individuals job to pull themselves up by the boot straps and take care of them. A smaller government should require lower taxation. At least this used to be the definition before Trump and Ryan’s last budget. They believe in a less regulated free market capitalism.

Libertarians believe in very small government, with less regulation so taxation should be lower. And those adult individuals should be able to decide for themselves if they want or need something. Most Libertarians believe they want government to leave them alone. Most Libertarians support regulation only in cases of the free market failing.