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The meaning of travel, despite ‘definitive’ articles to the contrary, is pretty subjective. And your relationship to it changes as you get older and begin to spend your weekends doing things like browsing health insurance policies. Reasons and motivations begin to wrinkle, just like us, revealing character.

Purpose and Motivation of Travel

It’s impossible not to notice all the messages we see these days about quitting your job and becoming a digital nomad, working from the beach on your laptop, travelling long term without a care in the world – but this isn’t for everyone. Likewise I’ve come across all sorts of sporty types and professional adventurers who do things like cycling backwards through the Amazon – and this definitely isn’t for everyone either! When you haven’t defined your own reasons for travelling, your own purpose, I find it’s easy to get caught up in other people’s plans and approaches to life. The first time I came back from my first big solo-traveling vacation my Mom asked me, “How was vacation? Was it fun?” I paused and thought. Looking back at the trip, it wasn’t all fun. To be honest, a good chunk of the time was not fun. I was socially overloaded and then lonely. I was ecstatic and then miserable. I felt lost and then... less lost. In the end, I decided to reply, “I learned a lot.”

History of Travel

Ever notice how when you sit still for a few hours without moving, you suddenly get up and find your legs are cramped, or asleep, or feel tense? That’s because they’re not meant to be still…at least not for long. We’re meant to move. Our limbs have to be in motion almost constantly. Humans have always been on the move. Our skeletons and muscle structures have evolved to facilitate gathering our food, escaping from predators, and to satisfy our animal curiosity. Human mind has an innate bent towards travel, since the earliest stage of human evolution man has had the desire to travel spurred by “the need of survival”. People lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants. People travelled by foot and carried their infants and belongings strapped to their heads and backs. Load too heavy for one person was strapped on a pole and carried by two people. Soon people learnt the value of dragging things on poles and sledges made of poles and raw hide. Y 10,000 BC. People had lived as tribes and migrated from one place for the proverbial “greener pasture” where they developed settlement. Middle-Eastern tribes developed agriculture. They also domesticated many wild animals of which horse, donkey, ox, cow and dog turned out to be the most useful for farm work. Trading was developed which created the need for better transportation. By developing harnesses the domesticated animals were also used to pull sledges for trade. While trade was a good reason to travel, so was military movement. Military travel was made possible by horse which was truly developed as a sturdy animal for travel over long distances. By 5000 BC., people began to develop water transportation. They built canoes, dugouts and rafts and propelled them by paddle or poles used in rivers, streams and lakes. The development of the wheel around 3000 B.C, In Mesopotamia gave a major push to the humankind when they developed carts pulled by oxen and other mobile transport to carry people and goods. Wheeled vehicles reached other civilizations later – to India by 2500 B.C., to Europe by 1400 B.C,. And to China about 1300 B.C,. The first spoke- wheels where developed mainly for chariots of war, pulled by horses around 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.

Geographic Types

Risk has been historically a term developed by cognitive psychology for more than 40 years. In tourism and hospitality fields this term was employed afterwards the World Trade Center A’s attack. Based on the assumptions that risk should be contemplated as a threat to the attractiveness of international tourist-destinations, a particular interest was given to the risk assessment as an efficient instrument to mitigate the negative terrorism’s aftermaths.

The way tourism responds to political crises is of paramount importance to warrant the well-functioning of this activity. The contributions of tourism in revitalizing the local economies first and foremost in developing countries has been widely studied by specialized literature up to date, but in last year’s few.

Researchers have questioned to what extent the high-degree of vulnerability of international travelers pave the pathways for the advent of terrorism. By adopting tourism as the primary form of production some peripheral countries with low concentration of capital are certainly circumscribed to face serious disruptions in case of terrorist onslaughts. Their inability to combine tourism with other economic resources makes of these sites a fertile target for terrorism. To some extent, Cooper and Boniface tried to present an all encompassed guide-book that typifies all potential problems and dangers a policy-maker should face in tourism-management and of course authors deserve credit for that. Structured in 4 sections which are based on more than 38 insight cases, this book alternates rich empirical-based examples with interesting conceptual discussions based on the different problems tourist-destination often face. In this vein, Boniface and Cooper go on to say that “Case-studies are an important element in the reaching of the geography of travel and tourism. In particular, they enhance and enliven the subject area by examining simulating issues in real life situation.

Travel Safety Points

  • Keep your travel plans, including accommodation details, to yourself.
  • Don't hitch hike.
  • Try not to travel at night.
  • Avoid 'seedier' areas of the cities you visit, especially at night.
  • Ask your hotel manager for advice on 'safe' versus 'unsafe' local areas.
  • As a general rule, city streets that include children and women suggest the area is safe for families.
  • Keep a photocopy of your passport and all other important documents in a safe place.
  • At the airport, watch for your suitcase as it appears on the carousel. Don't hang back and wait for the crowds to disperse - you might find that someone else has already taken your bag in the meantime.
  • Avoid changing money at airports, as thieves could be watching you.
  • Consult with your hotel manager or tourist information Centre about the public transport in your area. Make sure you know what official taxi cabs look like. A thief may pose as a taxi driver to lure you into their car.
  • If possible, choose accommodation that has unmarked 'swipe cards' rather than numbered keys for each room. If you lose your swipe card or if it is stolen, the thief won't know which room to rob.
  • Even if you're not sure where you're going, walk like you've got a purpose.
  • Match your dress style to that of the locals. Don't wear an obvious 'tourist' outfit like a loud shirt with a camera slung around your neck.
  • Be discreet when map reading.
  • Notice the people around you. Be wary if someone seems to be taking more than a passing interest.
  • Don't wear expensive jeweler on obvious display.
  • Wear valuables (such as traveler's cheese and credit cards) on a belt worn under the clothes and next to the skin.
  • If feeling particularly vulnerable, wear your money belt somewhere other than around your waist. Thieves know all about money belts too.
  • Consider carrying a 'dummy' wallet holding a small amount of cash. If you are directly confronted by a mugger, you can hand over the dummy wallet and avoid further distress.
  • Posing as a police officer and asking to check your money for counterfeit bills.
  • Posing as a tour guide and offering to show you the sights of the city.
  • Slipping sedative drugs into your food or drink.
  • Thieves in different cities tend to favor different scams. Ask your hotel manager or local tourist information officer for more information.